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  1. element represents a clickable button, which can be used in forms, or anywhere in a document that needs simple, standard button functionality.”><button>
  2. element contains a set of <option> elements that represent the values available for other controls.”><datalist>
  3. element is used to group several controls as well as labels (<label>) within a web form.”><fieldset>
  4. element represents a document section that contains interactive controls for submitting information to a web server.”><form>
  5. element is used to create interactive controls for web-based forms in order to accept data from the user; a wide variety of types of input data and control widgets are available, depending on the device and user agent.”><input>
  6. element exists to facilitate generation of key material, and submission of the public key as part of an HTML form. This mechanism is designed for use with Web-based certificate management systems. It is expected that the <keygen> element will be used in an HTML form along with other information needed to construct a certificate request, and that the result of the process will be a signed certificate.”><keygen>
  7. element represents a caption for an item in a user interface.”><label>
  8. element represents a caption for the content of its parent <fieldset>.”><legend>
  9. element represents either a scalar value within a known range or a fractional value.”><meter>
  10. element creates a grouping of options within a <select> element.”><optgroup>
  11. element is used to define an item contained in a <select>, an <optgroup>, or a <datalist> element. As such, <option> can represent menu items in popups and other lists of items in an HTML document.”><option>
  12. ) is a container element into which a site or app can inject the results of a calculation or the outcome of a user action.”><output>
  13. element displays an indicator showing the completion progress of a task, typically displayed as a progress bar.”><progress>
  14. element represents a control that provides a menu of options:”><select>
  15. element represents a multi-line plain-text editing control, useful when you want to allow users to enter a sizeable amount of free-form text, for example a comment on a review or feedback form.”><textarea>
  16. HTML Elements
    1. A
      1. element (or anchor element) creates a hyperlink to other web pages, files, locations within the same page, email addresses, or any other URL.”><a>
      2. ) represents an abbreviation or acronym; the optional title attribute can provide an expansion or description for the abbreviation.”><abbr>
      3. ) allows authors to clearly indicate a sequence of characters that compose an acronym or abbreviation for a word. This element has been removed in HTML5. Use <abbr> element.”><acronym>
      4. element indicates that the enclosed HTML provides contact information for a person or people, or for an organization.”><address>
      5. ) embeds a Java applet into the document; this element has been deprecated in favor of <object>.”><applet>
      6. element defines a hot-spot region on an image, and optionally associates it with a hypertext link. This element is used only within a <map> element.”><area>
      7. element represents a self-contained composition in a document, page, application, or site, which is intended to be independently distributable or reusable (e.g., in syndication). Examples include: a forum post, a magazine or newspaper article, or a blog entry.”><article>
      8. element represents a portion of a document whose content is only indirectly related to the document’s main content.”><aside>
      9. element is used to embed sound content in documents. It may contain one or more audio sources, represented using the src attribute or the <source> element: the browser will choose the most suitable one. It can also be the destination for streamed media, using a MediaStream.”><audio>
    2. B
      1. )  is used to draw the reader’s attention to the element’s contents, which are not otherwise granted special importance.”><b>
      2. element specifies the base URL to use for all relative URLs contained within a document. There can be only one <base> element in a document.”><base>
      3. ) sets a default font face, size, and color for the other elements which are descended from its parent element.”><basefont>
      4. )  is used to indicate spans of text which might need to be rendered in the opposite direction than the surrounding text.”><bdi>
      5. ) overrides the current directionality of text, so that the text within is rendered in a different direction.”><bdo>
      6. ) sets up a sound file to play in the background while the page is used; use <audio> instead.”><bgsound>
      7. ) renders the enclosed text at a font size one level larger than the surrounding text (medium becomes large, for example).”><big>
      8. ) is a non-standard element which causes the enclosed text to flash slowly.”><blink>
      9. Element (or HTML Block Quotation Element) indicates that the enclosed text is an extended quotation. Usually, this is rendered visually by indentation (see Notes for how to change it). A URL for the source of the quotation may be given using the cite attribute, while a text representation of the source can be given using the <cite> element.”><blockquote>
      10. Element represents the content of an HTML document. There can be only one <body> element in a document.”><body>
      11. element produces a line break in text (carriage-return). It is useful for writing a poem or an address, where the division of lines is significant.”><br>
      12. element represents a clickable button, which can be used in forms, or anywhere in a document that needs simple, standard button functionality.”><button>
    3. C
      1. element with either the canvas scripting API or the WebGL API to draw graphics and animations.”><canvas>
      2. ) specifies the caption (or title) of a table, and if used is always the first child of a <table>.”><caption>
      3. ) is a block-level element that displays its block-level or inline contents centered horizontally within its containing element.”><center>
      4. ) is used to describe a reference to a cited creative work, and must include either the title or the URL of that work.”><cite>
      5. element displays its contents styled in a fashion intended to indicate that the text is a short fragment of computer code.”><code>
      6. element defines a column within a table and is used for defining common semantics on all common cells. It is generally found within a <colgroup> element.”><col>
      7. element defines a group of columns within a table.”><colgroup>
      8. element—an obsolete part of the Web Components suite of technologies—was used inside of Shadow DOM as an insertion point, and wasn’t meant to be used in ordinary HTML.”><content>
    4. D
      1. element links a given content with a machine-readable translation. If the content is time- or date-related, the <time> element must be used.”><data>
      2. element contains a set of <option> elements that represent the values available for other controls.”><datalist>
      3. element provides the details about or the definition of the preceding term (<dt>) in a description list (<dl>).”><dd>
      4. element represents a range of text that has been deleted from a document.”><del>
      5. ) creates a disclosure widget in which information is visible only when the widget is toggled into an “open” state.’><details>
      6. ) is used to indicate the term being defined within the context of a definition phrase or sentence.”><dfn>
      7. element represents a dialog box or other interactive component, such as an inspector or window.”><dialog>
      8. ) is used as a container for a directory of files and/or folders, potentially with styles and icons applied by the user agent.”><dir>
      9. ) is the generic container for flow content. It has no effect on the content or layout until styled using CSS.”><div>
      10.  element represents a description list. The element encloses a list of groups of terms (specified using the <dt> element) and descriptions (provided by <dd> elements). Common uses for this element are to implement a glossary or to display metadata (a list of key-value pairs).”><dl>
      11. element specifies a term in a description or definition list, and as such must be used inside a <dl> element.”><dt>
    5. E
      1. element marks text that has stress emphasis. The <em> element can be nested, with each level of nesting indicating a greater degree of emphasis.”><em>
      2. element embeds external content at the specified point in the document. This content is provided by an external application or other source of interactive content such as a browser plug-in.”><embed>
    6. F
      1. element is used to group several controls as well as labels (<label>) within a web form.”><fieldset>
      2. element represents a caption or legend for the rest of the contents its parent <figure> element, if any.”><figcaption>
      3. element represents self-contained content, frequently with a caption (<figcaption>), and is typically referenced as a single unit.”><figure>
      4. ) defines the font size, color and face for its content.”><font>
      5. element represents a footer for its nearest sectioning content or sectioning root element. A footer typically contains information about the author of the section, copyright data or links to related documents.”><footer>
      6. element represents a document section that contains interactive controls for submitting information to a web server.”><form>
      7. is an HTML element which defines a particular area in which another HTML document can be displayed. A frame should be used within a <frameset>.”><frame>
      8. is an HTML element which is used to contain <frame> elements.”><frameset>
    7. G H
      1. is the most important and <h6> is the least. A heading element briefly describes the topic of the section it introduces. Heading information may be used by user agents, for example, to construct a table of contents for a document automatically.”><h1>
      2. is the most important and <h6> is the least. A heading element briefly describes the topic of the section it introduces. Heading information may be used by user agents, for example, to construct a table of contents for a document automatically.”><h2>
      3. is the most important and <h6> is the least. A heading element briefly describes the topic of the section it introduces. Heading information may be used by user agents, for example, to construct a table of contents for a document automatically.”><h3>
      4. is the most important and <h6> is the least. A heading element briefly describes the topic of the section it introduces. Heading information may be used by user agents, for example, to construct a table of contents for a document automatically.”><h4>
      5. is the most important and <h6> is the least. A heading element briefly describes the topic of the section it introduces. Heading information may be used by user agents, for example, to construct a table of contents for a document automatically.”><h5>
      6. is the most important and <h6> is the least. A heading element briefly describes the topic of the section it introduces. Heading information may be used by user agents, for example, to construct a table of contents for a document automatically.”><h6>
      7. element provides general information (metadata) about the document, including its title and links to its scripts and style sheets.”><head>
      8. element represents introductory content, typically a group of introductory or navigational aids. It may contain some heading elements but also other elements like a logo, a search form, an author name, and so on.”><header>
      9. element represents a multi-level heading for a section of a document. It groups a set of <h1>–<h6> elements.”><hgroup>
      10. element represents a thematic break between paragraph-level elements (for example, a change of scene in a story, or a shift of topic with a section); historically, this has been presented as a horizontal rule or line.”><hr>
      11. element represents the root (top-level element) of an HTML document, so it is also referred to as the root element. All other elements must be descendants of this element.”><html>
    8. I
      1. element represents a range of text that is set off from the normal text for some reason. Some examples include technical terms, foreign language phrases, or fictional character thoughts. It is typically displayed in italic type.”><i>
      2. ) represents a nested browsing context, effectively embedding another HTML page into the current page.”><iframe>
      3. element embeds an image into the document.”><img>
      4. element is used to create interactive controls for web-based forms in order to accept data from the user; a wide variety of types of input data and control widgets are available, depending on the device and user agent.”><input>
      5. element represents a range of text that has been added to a document.”><ins>
      6. is an obsolete HTML element that puts a text field in a page for querying the document.”><isindex>
    9. J K
      1. ) represents a span of inline text denoting textual user input from a keyboard, voice input, or any other text entry device.”><kbd>
      2. element exists to facilitate generation of key material, and submission of the public key as part of an HTML form. This mechanism is designed for use with Web-based certificate management systems. It is expected that the <keygen> element will be used in an HTML form along with other information needed to construct a certificate request, and that the result of the process will be a signed certificate.”><keygen>
    10. L
      1. element represents a caption for an item in a user interface.”><label>
      2. element represents a caption for the content of its parent <fieldset>.”><legend>
      3. element is used to represent an item in a list. It must be contained in a parent element: an ordered list (<ol>), an unordered list (<ul>), or a menu (<menu>). In menus and unordered lists, list items are usually displayed using bullet points. In ordered lists, they are usually displayed with an ascending counter on the left, such as a number or letter.”><li>
      4. element specifies relationships between the current document and an external resource. This element is most commonly used to link to stylesheets.”><link>
      5. ) renders text between the start and end tags without interpreting the HTML in between and using a monospaced font. The HTML 2 standard recommended that lines shouldn’t be broken when not greater than 132 characters.”><listing>
    11. M
      1. element represents the dominant content of the <body> of a document, portion of a document or application. The main content area consists of content that is directly related to or expands upon the central topic of a document, or the central functionality of an application.”><main>
      2. element is used with <area> elements to define an image map (a clickable link area).”><map>
      3. ) represents text which is marked or highlighted for reference or notation purposes, due to the marked passage’s relevance or importance in the enclosing context.”><mark>
      4. element is used to insert a scrolling area of text. You can control what happens when the text reaches the edges of its content area using its attributes.”><marquee>
      5. element represents a group of commands that a user can perform or activate. This includes both list menus, which might appear across the top of a screen, as well as context menus, such as those that might appear underneath a button after it has been clicked.”><menu>
      6. element represents a command that a user is able to invoke through a popup menu. This includes context menus, as well as menus that might be attached to a menu button.”><menuitem>
      7. element represents metadata that cannot be represented by other HTML meta-related elements, like <base>, <link>, <script>, <style> or <title>.”><meta>
      8. element represents either a scalar value within a known range or a fractional value.”><meter>
    12. N
      1. element represents a section of a page whose purpose is to provide navigation links, either within the current document or to other documents. Common examples of navigation sections are menus, tables of contents, and indexes.”><nav>
      2. element prevents the text it contains from automatically wrapping across multiple lines, potentially resulting in the user having to scroll horizontally to see the entire width of the text.”><nobr>
      3. , provides content to be presented in browsers that don’t support (or have disabled support for) the <frame> element.”><noframes>
      4. element defines a section of HTML to be inserted if a script type on the page is unsupported or if scripting is currently turned off in the browser.”><noscript>
    13. O
      1. element represents an external resource, which can be treated as an image, a nested browsing context, or a resource to be handled by a plugin.”><object>
      2. element represents an ordered list of items, typically rendered as a numbered list.”><ol>
      3. element creates a grouping of options within a <select> element.”><optgroup>
      4. element is used to define an item contained in a <select>, an <optgroup>, or a <datalist> element. As such, <option> can represent menu items in popups and other lists of items in an HTML document.”><option>
      5. ) is a container element into which a site or app can inject the results of a calculation or the outcome of a user action.”><output>
    14. P
      1. element represents a paragraph of text.”><p>
      2. element defines parameters for an <object> element.”><param>
      3. element serves as a container for zero or more <source> elements and one <img> element to provide versions of an image for different display device scenarios.”><picture>
      4. ) renders everything following the start tag as raw text, without interpreting any HTML. There is no closing tag, since everything after it is considered raw text.”><plaintext>
      5. element represents preformatted text which is to be presented exactly as written in the HTML file.”><pre>
      6. element displays an indicator showing the completion progress of a task, typically displayed as a progress bar.”><progress>
    15. Q
      1. element indicates that the enclosed text is a short inline quotation. Most modern browsers implement this by surrounding the text in quotation marks. “><q>
    16. R
      1. ) element is used to provide fall-back parentheses for browsers that do not support display of ruby annotations using the <ruby> element.”><rp>
      2. ) element specifies the ruby text component of a ruby annotation, which is used to provide pronunciation, translation, or transliteration information for East Asian typography. The <rt> element must always be contained within a <ruby> element.”><rt>
      3. ) element embraces semantic annotations of characters presented in a ruby of <rb> elements used inside of <ruby> element. <rb> elements can have both pronunciation (<rt>) and semantic (<rtc>) annotations.”><rtc>
      4. element represents a ruby annotation. Ruby annotations are for showing pronunciation of East Asian characters.”><ruby>
    17. S
      1. element renders text with a strikethrough, or a line through it. Use the <s> element to represent things that are no longer relevant or no longer accurate. However, <s> is not appropriate when indicating document edits; for that, use the <del> and <ins> elements, as appropriate.”><s>
      2. ) is used to enclose inline text which represents sample (or quoted) output from a computer program.”><samp>
      3. element is used to embed or reference executable code; this is typically used to embed or refer to JavaScript code.”><script>
      4. element represents a standalone section — which doesn’t have a more specific semantic element to represent it — contained within an HTML document.”><section>
      5. element represents a control that provides a menu of options:”><select>
      6. element—an obsolete part of the Web Components technology suite—was intended to be used as a shadow DOM insertion point.”><shadow>
      7. element—part of the Web Components technology suite—is a placeholder inside a web component that you can fill with your own markup, which lets you create separate DOM trees and present them together.”><slot>
      8. element makes the text font size one size smaller (for example, from large to medium, or from small to x-small) down to the browser’s minimum font size.  In HTML5, this element is repurposed to represent side-comments and small print, including copyright and legal text, independent of its styled presentation.”><small>
      9. element specifies multiple media resources for the <picture>, the <audio> element, or the <video> element. It is an empty element. It is commonly used to serve the same media content in multiple formats supported by different browsers.”><source>
      10. is an obsolete HTML element which allowed insertion of empty spaces on pages. It was devised by Netscape to accomplish the same effect as a single-pixel layout image, which was something web designers used to use to add white spaces to web pages without actually using an image. However, <spacer> no longer supported by any major browser and the same effects can now be achieved using simple CSS. “><spacer>
      11. element is a generic inline container for phrasing content, which does not inherently represent anything. It can be used to group elements for styling purposes (using the class or id attributes), or because they share attribute values, such as lang.”><span>
      12. element (or HTML Strikethrough Element) places a strikethrough (horizontal line) over text.”><strike>
      13. ) indicates that its contents have strong importance, seriousness, or urgency. Browsers typically render the contents in bold type.”><strong>
      14. element contains style information for a document, or part of a document.”><style>
      15. ) specifies inline text which should be displayed as subscript for solely typographical reasons.”><sub>
      16. ) element specifies a summary, caption, or legend for a <details> element’s disclosure box.”><summary>
      17. ) specifies inline text which is to be displayed as superscript for solely typographical reasons.”><sup>
    18. T
      1. element represents tabular data — that is, information presented in a two-dimensional table comprised of rows and columns of cells containing data.”><table>
      2. ) encapsulates a set of table row (<tr> elements, indicating that they comprise the body of the table (<table>).”><tbody>
      3. element defines a cell of a table that contains data. It participates in the table model.”><td>
      4. ) element is a mechanism for holding client-side content that is not to be rendered when a page is loaded but may subsequently be instantiated during runtime using JavaScript.”><template>
      5. element represents a multi-line plain-text editing control, useful when you want to allow users to enter a sizeable amount of free-form text, for example a comment on a review or feedback form.”><textarea>
      6. element defines a set of rows summarizing the columns of the table.”><tfoot>
      7. element defines a cell as header of a group of table cells. The exact nature of this group is defined by the scope and headers attributes.”><th>
      8. element defines a set of rows defining the head of the columns of the table.”><thead>
      9. element represents a specific period in time. It may include the datetime attribute to translate dates into machine-readable format, allowing for better search engine results or custom features such as reminders.”><time>
      10. ) defines the document’s title that is shown in a browser’s title bar or a page’s tab.”><title>
      11. element defines a row of cells in a table. The row’s cells can then be established using a mix of <td> (data cell) and <th> (header cell) elements.The HTML <tr> element specifies that the markup contained inside the <tr> block comprises one row of a table, inside which the <th> and <td> elements create header and data cells, respectively, within the row.”><tr>
      12. element is used as a child of the media elements <audio> and <video>. It lets you specify timed text tracks (or time-based data), for example to automatically handle subtitles. The tracks are formatted in WebVTT format (.vtt files) — Web Video Text Tracks or Timed Text Markup Language (TTML).”><track>
      13. ) creates inline text which is presented using the user agent’s default monospace font face.”><tt>
    19. U
      1. ) represents a span of inline text which should be rendered in a way that indicates that it has a non-textual annotation.”><u>
      2. element represents an unordered list of items, typically rendered as a bulleted list.”><ul>
    20. V
      1. ) represents the name of a variable in a mathematical expression or a programming context.”><var>
      2. ) embeds a media player which supports video playback into the document.”><video>
    21. W
      1. element represents a word break opportunity—a position within text where the browser may optionally break a line, though its line-breaking rules would not otherwise create a break at that location.”><wbr>
    22. X Y Z
      1. ) renders text between the start and end tags without interpreting the HTML in between and using a monospaced font. The HTML2 specification recommended that it should be rendered wide enough to allow 80 characters per line.”><xmp>

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julaha caste history in hindi

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People Groups of India

People Groups of India

discovering every tribe, nation, language & people

Julaha

Who are they?

The Julaha are an important artisan community who weave cloth on handlooms. They live in Uttar Pradesh (2.9 million), Himachal Pradesh, Delhi, Haryana, Jammu and Kashmir and Chandigarh. The term Julaha is derived from the Persian word julah, meaning ball of thread. The word is commonly associated with the Hindi jala or jali, meaning interlaced thread.

The Julaha are listed as a Scheduled Caste (SC) under the provisions of the Indian Constitution. This grants them and other SCs many benefits like fixed, reserved quotas in government jobs, in admissions to various government-sponsored professional colleges and welfare schemes for economic and social improvement and reserved seats in parliament.

Language

The Julaha speak the local languages of the states they live in. In Himachal Pradesh, where they live mainly in rural areas, they speak Kangri and Chambali. They speak The Indo-Aryan language of Haryanvi in Haryana. In Delhi, where they are migrants from Rajasthan, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh, they speak Rajasthani, Haryanvi or Hindi. All these languages use the common Devanagari script. In Chandigarh they speak Punjabi and write in the Gurumukhi script.

The Julaha belong to the Shudra caste, the fourth and lowest class of the Hindu caste system. The higher castes consider the Julaha as a lower class especially in rural area and do not accept food and water from them. The Julaha, in turn, do not exchange food with communities considered lower than them like the Churha (sweeper), Chamar (tanner), Dhanuk (laborer) and Raigar (tanner).

What Are Their Lives Like?

The Julaha used to be handloom weavers but industrial change has introduced cheaper, machine-made textiles to the market which has caused them to look for work in other fields. Some still continue weaving, making coarser cloth for bedspreads or Kharad (a large, thick cloth on grain at harvesting time to protect it from getting wet in the rain) and dhurries (floor rugs). Previously they wove intricate designs and patterns in beautiful colors. Cooperatives have been formed to regulate prices and help the Julaha sell cloth at local markets.

Some Julaha have taken up other professions and work as skilled and unskilled laborers, run small scale industries, shops or are businessmen. In the hilly state of Himachal Pradesh, they work for daily wages in building roads and forestry. They sometimes also work as farm laborers or plough land on a contract basis. Some Julaha rent out threshing machines during the harvesting season. Many Julaha do not own land, like those of Chandigarh. Breeding and caring for animals, tailoring, masonry, dyeing cloth and calico printing is some other types of work they do.

Child labour exists among the Julaha with children learning and working on the looms from a young age. The poor people send their children to work at tea stalls, small roadside restaurants, automobile workshops or factories to earn their living.

The literacy rate is very low and children do not complete their education. They practice family planning in order to have fewer children. They use both local remedies as well as visit clinics. They have benefitted from the facilities provided for them by the Public Distribution System and have electricity, water supplies and are given equipment at subsidised rates. In Himachal Pradesh, they have been allotted land for cultivation.

Customs

The Julaha are endogamous at the community level, i.e. they marry only within the community. They are exogamous at the gotra (clan) level, and sometimes at the village level too. Adult marriages are gradually replacing child marriages and are arranged by family members. Monogamy is preferred and sindur (vermilion), glass bangles, bindi (coloured dot on forehead), and rings for the nose and toes are the marriage symbols for women. Dowry is paid in cash by the bride’s parents to the bridegroom’s family and goods such as utensils, furniture, linen, gold ornaments and clothes are also given. The earlier practice involved the husband paying a bride price to the bride’s family. Divorce is socially unacceptable and rare but can be granted on ground of adultery, cruelty, insanity, impotency or incompatibility. Widows, widowers and divorcees are permitted to remarry. Junior levirate and junior sororate are prevalent and preferred.

Families live as smaller unit with parents and children and also in extended families with other relatives. The family is male-dominated and inheritance is only given to sons. The women are considered lower than men even though they are active in social and religious spheres. In addition to housework, they work as weavers, rear cattle or collect fuel. Urban women work in small industries. The Julaha have a rich tradition of folklore and tales and both men and women sing at celebrations. Women dance at births and marriages. They are good at performing comedy.

The Julaha have panchayats (community councils) at village and regional levels that settle community issues. Political leadership has emerged largely at the village level.

What Are Their Beliefs?

The Julaha are Hindu or Sikh by faith. The Hindus worship the gods and goddesses of Hinduism and celebrate all Hindu festivals. They also observe weekly fasts on Monday, Tuesday and Friday. A Brahmin priest performs rituals. The Himachal Pradesh Julaha have a priest from their own community who is called a purohit. The dead are cremated and the ashes immersed in a river, preferably the Ganges at Haridwar, Uttar Pradesh, which is considered holy. Ancestor worship is prevalent. The Julaha believe in witchcraft and superstition and make use of sorcerers to cure diseases and make their wishes come true.

The Sikh Julaha (living in Chandigarh, Haryana and Delhi) follow Sikhism and revere their ten Gurus as well as their holy book, the Guru Granth Sahib. They believe in the creator of the universe, and do not worship idols and believe that people are created equal and practice service to the community. The priest is called a giani and he conducts prayers at the gurudwara. Sikh festivals are celebrated by them. Some Julaha are also followers of guru-centric sects like the Arya Samaj and Radha Soami.

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Davinder SinghJaswant MehraRanjitkapil dev katariaP.k. sholiyan Recent comment authors

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Davinder Singh

hlo. iam. Davinder Singh. & iam kabirpanthi.julaha. from. Chandigarh. can any one tell that why r some julaha
s in sc & some in bc

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Julaha

From SikhiWiki
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For Information only
ਜਾਣਹੁ ਜੋਤਿ ਨ ਪੂਛਹੁ ਜਾਤੀ ਆਗੈ ਜਾਤਿ ਨ ਹੇ ॥੧॥ ਰਹਾਉ ॥ (ਪੰਨਾ 349, ਸਤਰ 13, Nanak)

Sikhism does not endorse caste based distinctions in society that lead to unequal opportunities for some people. In fact, Sikhism completely rejects class or race based distinctions between humans, that leads us to make an inequitable society. Such distinctions have surfaced only due to ill interests of certain section of people, who, on the pretext of making a society more manageable through these classifications, eventually paved the way to an unequal grouping within the human race. This article is just for information purpose and to share how people from different castes came into the Sikh fold. So, please treat this article as a source of general information about this issue and kindly do not amend this article to highlight this important underlying Sikh principle. If you have any comments, please discuss them appropriately here

Julaha also called weavers. Members of this community were engaged in the profession of weaving also called ramdasia sikhs. They may at times be also referred to as julaha meaning a weaver in punjabi and hindi. The total population of this community is about 505,000, 80% of which reside in Punjab alone. The remaining 20% are found in the states of Haryana, Delhi, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh. The Sikh Light Infantry draws its man power from the Mazhabi and Ramdasia elements amongst the Sikhs. The terms ravidasia and ramdasia are not synonymous and hence should never be used interchangeably as they differ in thier Profession.

Geography

Contents

  • 1 Geography
  • 2 Acc. to backward list
  • 3 Some Historic Points
    • 3.1 Kabir
  • 4 People
  • 5 Ethnic Tree
  • 6 Language
  • 7 Religion

Country: India
Continent: Asia
Region: South Asia

Population in this Country: 801,000

Largest States on file:

Uttar Pradesh (271,000), Himachal Pradesh (163,000)

Jharkhand (134,000), Punjab (84,000)

Delhi (76,000), Haryana (41,000)

Rajasthan (12,000), Uttaranachal (5,200)

Bihar (3,200), Maharashtra (3,000)

Total States on file: 25

Entry No. In centre list

Acc. to backward list

Chandigarh
Backward – Jullaha/Julaha (Weavers) 31

Punjab
Backword – Weaver (Jhullaha or Julaha (including Kabirpanthi
Julaha excluding those who are
Scheduled Castes) 17

In Haryana the Julaha are the followers of Kabir though some Julaha have adopted Buddhism, and some The Julaha of Delhi and Chandigarh are divided into two groups, Kabirpanthi and Julaha. The Kabirpanthi Julahas derive their name from Kabir. The Hindu Julahas also follow Kabir teachings. There are both Hindu and Sikh Julahas among them. In Jammu and Kashmir, the Kabirpanthi are also known as Bhagats. Some follow Sikhism and some even Christianity.

Madhya Pardesh, Himanchal Pardesh, Haryana, Uttar Pardesh

Some Historic Points

Kabir

Kabir seek an escape from his caste identity, there is no attempt to deny that he is a julaha or kori. He is acutely aware of the vileness and idiocy attributed to his caste, he even uses this awareness with pungent irony at many places — a fact which makes his insistence on being a julaha even more significant. He categorically rejects the “normal” attribution of vileness and idiocy to julahas or for that matter to any social group.

Declares he: Julaha by caste and steadfast in intellect, Kabir is happily merged with the qualities (of God). — Granthavali–pada 270. Also, says he: Kabir that caste of mine is a joke to everyone; Blessed indeed be such a birth that let me invoke the creator — Saloka 2, Adigranth. (Translated and cited by Charlotte Vaudeville in ‘A Weaver named Kabir’, p.71; OUP, new Delhi, 1993).

It should be clear from the above that his caste is the inevitable marker of the social location which Kabir does not feel like escaping from, while descriptions like Hindu, Muslim or Jogi essentially refer to certain conceptual frameworks and the communitarian identities based on them. His refusal to describe himself as belonging to any of them indicates the intellectual independence of an individual who is conscious of his location and precisely because of this conciseness is insistent on rejecting the available frameworks. Here is an individual who is confidently challenging the given attributions of certain qualities to certain social groups on the basis of his own achievements and intellectual steadfastness. His description of himself as a julaha, steadfast in the intellect, his insistence on his worth as an individual is in conformity with his fundamental refusal to internalise the idea of arbitrary ascription to some social group without any regard for the individual’s achievement or the lack of it.

The Kabirpanthis believe that Kabir was an incarnation having a miraculous birth. A weaver’s wife, Nima, found him as an infant floating on a lotus in a tank near Benares. She and her husband, Niru, brought Kabir up as their child. Other legends tell of Kabir’s wife, Loi, son, Kamal, and daughter, Kamaliya, all having miraculous births. Niru and Nima were of the Julaha, a low caste of Muslim weavers, and Kabir worked as a weaver near Benares all his life. The Julaha were probably recent converts to Islam and it is not certain that Kabir was circumcised

Choti jat da Kabir julaha, Naam jap ucha ho gaya (2x)
Kabir was once a low caste weaver; He became the highest by meditating on Naam.
Kabir était jadis un tisserand de caste pauvre; Il est devenu le plus haut en méditant sur le Naam.

Mus-mus rove, Kabir ji ki mai, (2x)
Ehe balak kese, jive raghurai (2x)
Naam jap ucha . . .
Kabir’s mother weeps bitterly, worrying, “How is this child going to live, O God?” He became the highest by meditating on Naam.
La mère de Kabir pleura amèrement, s’inquiétant: “Comment cet enfant va-t-il vivre, O Dieu? Il est devenu le plus haut en méditant sur le Naam.

Tanana bunana, tajyo Kabira (2x)
Har ka Naam likh, leyo sharira (2x)
Naam jap ucha . . .
Kabir has quit weaving, and has written the Naam of God on his body. He became the highest by meditating on Naam.
Kabir a abandonné le tissage, et a gravé le Naam de Dieu sur Son corps. Il est devenu le plus haut en méditant sur le Naam.

Ochhi mat meri, jat julaha (2x)
Har ka Naam, leyo mai laha (2x)
Naam jap ucha . . .
I am of low community, my caste is weaver; I have only one advantage, that is of Naam. He became the highest by meditating on Naam.
Je suis d’une communauté pauvre, ma caste étant celle des tisserands; Je n’ai qu’un avantage, c’est celui du Naam. Il est devenu le plus haut en méditant sur le Naam.

Kahat Kabir, suno meri mai (2x)
Hamara inka data, ik raghurai (2x)
Naam jap ucha . . .
Kabir says: “Listen, my mother, God is the only giver for all of us”. He became the highest by meditating on Naam.
Kabir dit: “Ecoutez, mère, Dieu est l’unique donateur pour nous tous”. Il est devenu le plus haut en méditant sur le Naam.

People

People Name This Country: Julaha

People Name General: Julaha

Alternate People Names:

Bhagat Bunia
Bunkar Devanga
Djanate Julaha Jogi Julaha
Kabir Kabirpanthi
Kachi Kir
Megh Kori
Koli Panka
Paoli Patua
Togata

Population in this Country:801,000

Population in all Countries:801,000

Ethnic Tree

Affinity Bloc: South Asian Peoples

People Cluster: Hindi

People Name General: Julaha

Language

Primary Language:Hindi (501,000 Speakers)

Secondary Languages:

Panjabi, Eastern (144,000), Mandeali (39,000)

Bilaspuri (24,000), Haryanvi (6,500)

Magahi (1,300), Gujarati (400)

Chhattisgarhi (300), Bhojpuri (200)

Telugu (100), Mewari (100), Pahari,

Kullu (100), Sirmauri (80), Chambeali (30)

Kachchi (20), Bengali (20), Kanjari (Unknown), Kinnauri (Unknown) Ladakhi (Unknown), Pangwali (Unknown), Tinani (Unknown)

Total Languages Spoken: 21

Religion

Primary Religion:Hinduism

Major Religions:

Hinduism 95.53 %
Sikhism 4.47 %

President bodyguard.jpg  This Social Groups article is a stub . Help SikhiWiki by expanding it .

Social Groups

Rajput ♣♣ Khatri ♣♣ Lohar ♣♣ Kumhar ♣♣ Nai ♣♣ Chamar ♣♣ Arora ♣♣ Bhatra ♣♣ Agrawal ♣♣ Bania ♣♣ Sindhi ♣♣ Saini ♣♣ Julaha

Retrieved from ” http://www.sikhiwiki.org/index.php?title=Julaha&oldid=112272 “
Categories :

  • Sikhi-related stubs
  • Social Groups
  • Social Groups of India
  • Indian castes

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ashtabula high school class of 1970

Ashtabula High School


Ashtabula,
Ohio

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Ashtabula HS (AHS) Class of 1970 Alumni List

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Registered Alumni

  • Terry Bell Class of 1970
    Terry Bell
  • Tom Kivela Class of 1970
    Tom Kivela
  • David Loeb Class of 1970
    David Loeb
Add Your Name

1970 Class List

  • Rick Armstrong

  • Sharon Bates

  • Terry Bell

  • Nannette Bishop

  • Kathy Brail

  • Gloria Browne

  • David Coffelt

  • Mary Beth Dont Know

  • Ann Eastman

  • James Ely

  • Margi Goff

  • Steve Guerriero

  • Kathy Hale

  • David Hayes

  • Tom Kivela

  • David Loeb

  • Mary Loftus

  • Dee Dee Lowe

  • Sally Maki

  • Joseph Marino

  • Robin McCartney

  • Bruce McClimans

  • Tammy Munger

  • Gary Newsome

  • Karen OConnor

  • Janice Osborne

  • Randy Pawlowski

  • Louise Payne

  • Debbie Perkins

  • Vickie Priddle

  • Cliff Ranier

  • Charles Rathbun

  • Seme Sara

  • Deb Sherman

  • Nancy Von Tesmar

  • Rusty Woodburn

Know Ashtabula HS Class of 1970 graduates that are NOT on this List? Help us Update the 1970 Class List by adding missing names.

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1970 Ashtabula High School Yearbook

1970 Ashtabula High School Yearbook
Click here to view at Classmates.com®

Entertainment

The top movie in theaters during 1970 was Love Story, grossing over $106,397,186 in its lifetime.
The most popular television series for 1970 was Rowan and Martin’s Laugh-In

Hit Songs From 1970

  • Venus

    Shocking Blue
  • Cecelia

    Simon and Garfunkel
  • Ma Belle Amie

    Tee Set
  • (They Long To Be) Close To You

    Carpenters
  • Mama Told Me (Not To Come)

    Three Dog Night
  • Raindrops Keep Fallin’ On My Head

    B.J. Thomas
  • Ball Of Confusion (That’s What The World Is Today)

    Temptations
  • In The Summertime

    Mungo Jerry
  • Love Land

    Charles Wright and The Watts 103rd Street Rhythm Band
  • Tighter, Tighter

    Alive and Kicking

Hit Movies From 1970

  • Love Story

  • Catch-22

  • M*A*S*H

Hit TV Shows From 1970

  • The Flip Wilson Show on NBC

  • My Three Sons on CBS

  • The Men from Shiloh on NBC

  • Gunsmoke on CBS

  • Hawaii Five-O on CBS

Class Memories From 1970

Tom Kivela
Register to contact

wentlings pharmacy
Cool Hangouts
Posted: 05/23/2008

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School’s Address:
401 W 44th St
Ashtabula, Ohio 44004

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Help us Update the Ashtabula HS 1970 Class List by adding any names missing from the list below:

< Previous (Class of 1971)
Next (Class of 1969) >

Registered Alumni

  • Terry Bell Class of 1970
    Terry Bell
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    Tom Kivela
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    David Loeb
Add Your Name

1970 Class List

  • Rick Armstrong

  • Sharon Bates

  • Terry Bell

  • Nannette Bishop

  • Kathy Brail

  • Gloria Browne

  • David Coffelt

  • Mary Beth Dont Know

  • Ann Eastman

  • James Ely

  • Margi Goff

  • Steve Guerriero

  • Kathy Hale

  • David Hayes

  • Tom Kivela

  • David Loeb

  • Mary Loftus

  • Dee Dee Lowe

  • Sally Maki

  • Joseph Marino

  • Robin McCartney

  • Bruce McClimans

  • Tammy Munger

  • Gary Newsome

  • Karen OConnor

  • Janice Osborne

  • Randy Pawlowski

  • Louise Payne

  • Debbie Perkins

  • Vickie Priddle

  • Cliff Ranier

  • Charles Rathbun

  • Seme Sara

  • Deb Sherman

  • Nancy Von Tesmar

  • Rusty Woodburn

Know Ashtabula HS Class of 1970 graduates that are NOT on this List? Help us Update the 1970 Class List by adding missing names.

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1970 Ashtabula High School Yearbook

1970 Ashtabula High School Yearbook
Click here to view at Classmates.com®

Entertainment

The top movie in theaters during 1970 was Love Story, grossing over $106,397,186 in its lifetime.
The most popular television series for 1970 was Rowan and Martin’s Laugh-In

Hit Songs From 1970

  • Venus

    Shocking Blue
  • Cecelia

    Simon and Garfunkel
  • Ma Belle Amie

    Tee Set
  • (They Long To Be) Close To You

    Carpenters
  • Mama Told Me (Not To Come)

    Three Dog Night
  • Raindrops Keep Fallin’ On My Head

    B.J. Thomas
  • Ball Of Confusion (That’s What The World Is Today)

    Temptations
  • In The Summertime

    Mungo Jerry
  • Love Land

    Charles Wright and The Watts 103rd Street Rhythm Band
  • Tighter, Tighter

    Alive and Kicking

Hit Movies From 1970

  • Love Story

  • Catch-22

  • M*A*S*H

Hit TV Shows From 1970

  • The Flip Wilson Show on NBC

  • My Three Sons on CBS

  • The Men from Shiloh on NBC

  • Gunsmoke on CBS

  • Hawaii Five-O on CBS

Class Memories From 1970

Tom Kivela
Register to contact

wentlings pharmacy
Cool Hangouts
Posted: 05/23/2008

Add Your Memory of 1970

Reunions and Ashtabula High School News

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Alumni from the Ashtabula High School class of 1970 that have been added to this alumni directory are shown on this page. All of the people on this page graduated in ’70 from Ashtabula HS. You can register for free to add your name to the AHS alumni directory.

You can also find out what other graduates are doing now, share memories with other alumn, upload pictures from Ashtabula High and find other alumni .

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School’s Address:
401 W 44th St
Ashtabula, Ohio 44004

Looking for AHS alumni not on this site?
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Ashtabula High School


Ashtabula,
Ohio

A free site for Ashtabula High School alumni

HighSchoolNetwork

  • Member Panel
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  • Find Alumni
  • Alumni Directory
  • Class Lists
  • Menu
  • Reunion Info
  • Yearbooks
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Ashtabula HS (AHS) Class of 1970 Alumni List

Help us Update the Ashtabula HS 1970 Class List by adding any names missing from the list below:

< Previous (Class of 1971)
Next (Class of 1969) >

Registered Alumni

  • Terry Bell Class of 1970
    Terry Bell
  • Tom Kivela Class of 1970
    Tom Kivela
  • David Loeb Class of 1970
    David Loeb
Add Your Name

1970 Class List

  • Rick Armstrong

  • Sharon Bates

  • Terry Bell

  • Nannette Bishop

  • Kathy Brail

  • Gloria Browne

  • David Coffelt

  • Mary Beth Dont Know

  • Ann Eastman

  • James Ely

  • Margi Goff

  • Steve Guerriero

  • Kathy Hale

  • David Hayes

  • Tom Kivela

  • David Loeb

  • Mary Loftus

  • Dee Dee Lowe

  • Sally Maki

  • Joseph Marino

  • Robin McCartney

  • Bruce McClimans

  • Tammy Munger

  • Gary Newsome

  • Karen OConnor

  • Janice Osborne

  • Randy Pawlowski

  • Louise Payne

  • Debbie Perkins

  • Vickie Priddle

  • Cliff Ranier

  • Charles Rathbun

  • Seme Sara

  • Deb Sherman

  • Nancy Von Tesmar

  • Rusty Woodburn

Know Ashtabula HS Class of 1970 graduates that are NOT on this List? Help us Update the 1970 Class List by adding missing names.

Add Missing Alumni to the Class List

1970 Ashtabula High School Yearbook

1970 Ashtabula High School Yearbook
Click here to view at Classmates.com®

Entertainment

The top movie in theaters during 1970 was Love Story, grossing over $106,397,186 in its lifetime.
The most popular television series for 1970 was Rowan and Martin’s Laugh-In

Hit Songs From 1970

  • Venus

    Shocking Blue
  • Cecelia

    Simon and Garfunkel
  • Ma Belle Amie

    Tee Set
  • (They Long To Be) Close To You

    Carpenters
  • Mama Told Me (Not To Come)

    Three Dog Night
  • Raindrops Keep Fallin’ On My Head

    B.J. Thomas
  • Ball Of Confusion (That’s What The World Is Today)

    Temptations
  • In The Summertime

    Mungo Jerry
  • Love Land

    Charles Wright and The Watts 103rd Street Rhythm Band
  • Tighter, Tighter

    Alive and Kicking

Hit Movies From 1970

  • Love Story

  • Catch-22

  • M*A*S*H

Hit TV Shows From 1970

  • The Flip Wilson Show on NBC

  • My Three Sons on CBS

  • The Men from Shiloh on NBC

  • Gunsmoke on CBS

  • Hawaii Five-O on CBS

Class Memories From 1970

Tom Kivela
Register to contact

wentlings pharmacy
Cool Hangouts
Posted: 05/23/2008

Add Your Memory of 1970

Reunions and Ashtabula High School News

Search Classmates.com® for News
Add Reunion Info
Submit AHS News

More 1970 alumni from Ashtabula HS have posted profiles on Classmates.com®. Click here to register for free at Classmates.com® and view other 1970 alumni.

 

Alumni from the Ashtabula High School class of 1970 that have been added to this alumni directory are shown on this page. All of the people on this page graduated in ’70 from Ashtabula HS. You can register for free to add your name to the AHS alumni directory.

You can also find out what other graduates are doing now, share memories with other alumn, upload pictures from Ashtabula High and find other alumni .

  • Member Panel
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    • Related Links
School’s Address:
401 W 44th St
Ashtabula, Ohio 44004

Looking for AHS alumni not on this site?
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  •   LINKEDIN
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Yearbooks Home / Ohio / Ashtabula / Ashtabula High School / 1970 Yearbook

1970 Ashtabula High School YEARBOOK – Ashtabula, OH

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Hardcover, 264 pages

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A
Adamczyk, Kris 88 , 89
Anderson, Gerald 89
Anderson, Karen 218 , 220
Arcaro, Tom 26 , 70 , 174 , 176 , 181 , 195 , 197 , 209 , 210
Ashley, Pamela 89
Ashley, Roxanne 101
Ashley, Vickie 101
B
Bailey, Lois 216
Bates, Darlene 178 , 190
Bates, Randall 101
Battista, Timothy 89 , 192 , 205 , 208
Battles, Beverly 76 , 219
Benjamin, Gary 76 , 181 , 204 , 220
Benze, James 70 , 181 , 196 , 206 , 209
Bishop, Becky 88 , 89
Bishop, Nanette 27 , 218
BIXLER, EDWARD 76
Blanchard, Carol 76
Bloom, Vickie 76 , 178 , 199
bobbitt, charles 101
Boles, Clarice 111
Bowler, James 76
Branscome, Sandra 28
Branscome, Susan 28
Brown, Catherine 76 , 186 , 213
Brown, Cheryl 102
Brown, Judy 76
Brown, Michael 102
Bruce, Robert 88 , 89
Burgess, Judy 28
Burleson, Marilyn 102 , 189 , 217
C
Campagna, Lynnette 89
campbell, jerry 77
Carr, John 102
Carroll, Edward 224 , 225
Chatman, William 102
Cobb, Debbi 192
Coffelt, David 30
Colbert, Tamara 102
Colucci, Cindy 102
Cox, Judy 30
D
Davis, Denise 31
DeRosa, Vanessa 103
devaughn, dave 220
Dewey, Joann 78 , 188
Dragon, Mary 103
Ducro, George 103
E
Eastman, Ann 32 , 70 , 182 , 185 , 191 , 196 , 209 , 210
Eaton, Robert 98 , 99 , 207 , 221
Elston, Nancy 78 , 182 , 220
Emerson, Dwight 103
Emery, Earline 78
English, Kim 103
Evans, Judy 32
F
Fassett, Julie 7 , 149 , 171 , 178 , 189 , 201 , 218
Fassett, Ron 78 , 185
fields, Robert 90
Freede, Joyce 79 , 188 , 190 , 191 , 208 , 211 , 219 , 222 , 223
G
garnett, richard 104
Gehalo, Thomas 186
Gierth, Richard 79 , 188
Goodell, Carol 180 , 185 , 203
Grant, Debby 80 , 190 , 191
guerriero, Carol 90 , 91
H
Hakala, Ron 90 , 91
Hale, Phillip 90 , 91
DeRosa, Vanessa 102
Harvey, Janet 37
Hathy, Tim 91
Hill, Almeda 34
HOKE, CINDY 105
Holmes, Jon 92
holsinger, glenna 80
Honkonen, Terry 34
Hoplight, Pamela 92
Hopson, Nira 104 , 105
Houck, Terry 92
houck, terry 92
Hounshell, Karen 105
Houser, Joan 92
Howell, Dee 80 , 178
Howell, Steve 105
Hubbard, Joanne 81
Hudson, Nancy 105
Harnist, Susan 90 , 94 , 110
hunt, john 92 , 207
I
Izzi, Thomas 93
J
Jackson, Harley 81
Jenks, Kathy 93
Jenne, Bill 35 , 66 , 206
Jepson, Peter 35 , 140 , 147 , 160 , 174 , 206
Johnson, Bob 180
Johnson, Lydia 105
Johnson, Robert 81
Johnson, Scott 105 , 185
Jones, Curtis 81 , 134 , 180 , 181 , 195
Jones, David 93
Jones, Gertrude 38
Jones, Marvin 111
Jones, Peggy 38
jones, shelby 111
K
Kaikko, Victor 81 , 205 , 207 , 221
Kaydo, Tracey 93
keen, barbara 55 , 178
Keener, David 93
Kent, Kathleen 106 , 199
Kernich, Roberta 93 , 220 , 221
Kernich, Vanessa 82 , 219 , 250
Kirk, Renee 111
Kivela, Tom 38 , 206
knowlton, diana 106
Knowlton, Reggie 38
L
Lane, Frank 111
Lane, Kenneth 1
Leonard, Robert 106
Leonard, Vickie 92 , 93
Libbey, Donna 93 , 150
Lilley, Linda 106
Lillis, Kathy 82
loggins, john 82
loll, chris 106 , 217
long, cheryl 82
Lowe, Adrienne 83 , 190
lucas, roy 41
luce, dale 83
Lynch, Richard 92 , 93
M
Maille, Don 70 , 134 , 195 , 206
Maille, Thomas 83
Manyo, Kathleen 83
Martino, Deborah 83
Mason, Timothy 83
Matson, Bryan 42
Matson, Jeff 107
Mayer, Ed 42 , 194 , 206 , 214
McCabe, Barb 82 , 83
McCabe, Marcella 107
McCalmont, Sandy 83
Mcclimans, Bruce 43 , 195 , 206
McCloud, Nancy 107
Mcconnell, Randy 99
Mcculloch, Tom 176
McMillion, Duane 94
Mead, Kevin 83 , 180 , 181 , 209
Millard, Joyce 107
miller, debbie 94
miller, Kathy 107
Miller, William 127
Mitchell, Larry 106 , 107
Montanaro, Marie 107 , 185
Mulholland, Robert 95
Murphy, Molly 94 , 95 , 179
Murphy, Samuel 84
N
Nagle, Ron 95
Newsome, Carl 107
Northern, Benny 84
Noyes, Renee 84
P
Pallutch, Linda 94 , 95 , 217
Palmer, Beverly 95
Parrett, Barb 94 , 95 , 212 , 221
Pawlowski, Randy 161 , 206
Peet, Stephen 108
Penna, Michael 84 , 180 , 181 , 199
Peoples, Stella 108
Perkins, Charles 84
Peterson, Beth 94 , 95
Pettit, Beth 108
Phelps, Karen 94
Plants, David 70
podges, Bob 96
Podges, Karen 108
Pollard, Lonzo 84
Pontius, David 84 , 188 , 190 , 195 , 220
Powers, Brenda 84
Priddle, Vicki 46 , 70 , 171 , 177 , 197 , 208 , 210 , 222 , 223 , 253
R
Rathbun, Charles 47 , 187 , 206
Ray, Bonnie 108
Reiser, James 206
Brenwald, June 88
Rich, Debra 96 , 186 , 221
Roberts, Debbie 109
S
Scafuro, Jeff 48 , 134 , 194 , 206
Schlaich, Keith 109 , 193
Schultz, Kathy 48
Scott, Jack 97 , 215
Senger, Gerald 110
Serpico, Randall 97
Shaylor, Mark 109 , 187 , 224
Sheer, Sharon 109 , 151 , 188
Sheffey, Janet 109
Simon, Audrey 109
Skaggs, Martha 85
Slider, Nancy 86 , 178 , 199
Smith, Lewis 97
Smith, Patricia 180 , 190 , 208
Snell, Theodore 86
Sokaski, Thomas 110 , 193 , 205 , 208
Sparks, Dale 1 , 96 , 97
Stevenson, Roger 86
Swanson, Mark 110
T
Tackett, Roger 51 , 206
Taylor, Norman 123 , 184
Thomas, Pamela 110
Thornhill, David 51
Thress, Kathleen 7 , 70 , 149 , 171 , 188 , 189 , 191 , 197 , 203 , 208 , 211 , 218 , 223 , 227
Tissari, Sally 7 , 52 , 202
Town, Robin 185
Tremblay, Judy 179 , 188 , 200
Tremblay, Kathy 98 , 208
Trenn, Bonita 98
Turner, Robert 110
Twitchell, Richard 98 , 185 , 192
U
Uitto, David 87
V
Vincenzo, Joseph 53 , 195 , 206
W
wakser, mark 98
Walker, Rebecca 7 , 53 , 179 , 201
Walton, Charlotte 87 , 174
Weagraff, Helen 7 , 209
Welker, Robert 98
West, Trudy 218
Wheeler, Jeff 111
Wheeler, Jeffrey 110
Wheeler, Mike 174 , 206
Wild, Glenda 87
Wilfong, Jerry 111
Williams, Judy 111
Wilson, Ellen 54 , 171 , 179 , 202
Woods, Ron 185
Wuorinen, John 99
Wyman, Deborah 178 , 186 , 188
Y
Youngman, Owen 87 , 180 , 181 , 184 , 185 , 192 , 205 , 223 , 224 , 225
Youngman, Randy 205
Z
Zetlaw, Karen 98 , 99 , 221

1970 Ashtabula High School Yearbook Cover

Visit the Ashtabula High School page
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Salesforce CRM Training and Certification in Mumbai

On June 23, 2018,Posted by CRS Info Solutions ,In Software Training ,By salesforce course fee mumbai , salesforce crm training institutes in mumbai , salesforce institutes in mumbai , salesforce training cost in mumbai , salesforce training cost mumbai , salesforce training in mumbai , salesforce training mumbai , salesforce.com training institute mumbai ,With Comments Off on Salesforce CRM Training and Certification in Mumbai
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Salesforce Certification Training in Mumbai will make you an expert in all the concepts related to administration and declarative development options. It will also help you prepare for Salesforce Certification (both SFDC Admin 201 & App Builder Certification).

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Who can attend

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Duration: Daily 1 hour

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Salesforce Training Course Overview:

CRM FUNDAMENTALS

  • Introduction to CRM
  • Introduction to Sales Cycle
  • Understanding the terminologies of CRM
  • Introduction to SFDC
  • Understanding the workflow of SFDC with a real time example

SFDC BASICS AND DEVELOPMENT Understanding the terms in SFDC

  • Introduction to SFDC Editions
  • Creating Objects, Tabs and Apps in SFDC
  • Creating layouts and applying hierarchy
  • Creating roles and profiles
  • Creating workflow rules
  • Creating Tasks and Events
  • Understanding the SFDC admin system
  • Creating relationships between the objects

SFDC ADVANCED DEVELOPMENT

  • Invoking Apex
  • Creating Apex Classes and triggers
  • Customization using Apex programming
  • Integration to third party systems using SFDC AP
  • Introduction to Visual Force
  • Creating Visual Force pages
  • Creating Packages
  • Deploying SFDC
  • Using Visual Force in a real time scenario
  • Creating Reports and Dashboards
  • How CRM is useful in Hospitality, Healthcare, Manufacturing etc

SALESFORCE CRM TRAINING COURSE OVERVIEW:

Cloud Computing Fundamentals

  • Introduction to the Cloud Computing
  • Evolution of Cloud Computing
  • Comparisons with other computing techniques fetchers
  • Key characteristics of cloud computing
  • Advantages/Disadvantages
  • Classification of Cloud Computing

1. Based on as a service model

  1. SAAS (Software as a service)
  2. PAAS (Platform as a service)
  3. IAAS (Infrastructure as a service

2. Based on deployment or access model

  1. Public Cloud
  2. Private Cloud
  3. Hybrid Cloud

SALES FORCE CRM CONCEPTS

  • What is CRM?
  • How CRM can help?
  • Sales force CRM Navigation terminology
  • Compare Salesforce.com CRM with other CRM products
  • Customization in sales force .com CRM
  • Introduction to sales force CRM Setup tool
  1. Personal Setup
  2. App Setup
  3. Admin Setup

SALESFORCE.COM CLOUD OVERVIEW

  • Sales Cloud
  • Service Cloud
  • Collaboration Cloud

PROJECT DEVELOPMENT LIFE CYCLE

SALES FORCE EDITIONS

APEX DATA LOADER

ORGANIZATION ADMINISTRATION

  • Set your organization’s language & locale
  • Manage currency

CUSTOMIZATION

  • Create custom profiles & custom fields
  • Define dependent pick list
  • Customize lookup fields
  • Customize validation & formulas
  • Customize page layouts
  • Customize standard related lists
  • Use field-level security

WORKFLOW

  • Define workflow
  • Set up workflow rules
  • Set up workflow tasks & alerts

WORKFLOW APPROVALS

  • Plan approvals using workflow
  • Use the approval wizard – standard vs. jump start
  • Create workflow approvals
  • Create & Manager Users
  • Set organization-wide defaults
  • Learn about record accessed
  • Create the role hierarchy
  • Learn about role transfer & mass Transfer functionality
  • Profiles, Login History

DATA UTILITIES

  • Importing overview
  • Learn about import solutions & Custom Object records using the data loader
  • User mass delete

EXTENDING SALESFORCE CRM

  • Learn about custom objects
  • Learn about custom tabs
  • Learn about custom web tabs

THE APPEXCHNAGE

  • The AppExchange
  • Install an app
  • Delete an app

VISUAL FORCE

  • Introduction and Tools
  • Purpose of Visualfoce
  • MVC Architecture

CONTROLLERS

  • Variables and Formulas
  • Standard Controllers and Standard List Controllers
  • Custom Controllers and Controller Extensions
  • Using static resources and custom components
  • Styling VF pages
  • Overriding buttons, links and tabs with VF
  • Using JavaScript in VF Pages
  • Advanced examples

APEX

  • Introduction to Apex
  • Pupose of Apex

APEX FUNDAMENTALS

  • Collections
  • Loops

APEX SCHEDULING

OBJECTS AND THE DATABASE

  • What is an sObject
  • SOQL and SOSL Queries

REAL TIME ROLES IN CLOUD COMPUTING:

1. SALESFORCE ADMINISTRATOR

2. SALESFORCE DEVELOPER

(so YOU can apply for job as a ADMINISTRATOR or DEVELOPER if you finish COURSE here, no worry WE LL MAKE CV WITH PROJECTS, MOCKINTERVIEWS)

1.SALESFORCE ADMINISTRATOR

  1. CRM Overview & SaaS
  2. Salesforce Applications (Marketing, Sales, Service) Overview
  3. Configuration Basics Overview
    1. Application Elements Overview (Tabs, App, Links, HomePage Component)
    2. Salesforce Building Blocks Overview (Objects, Page Layouts, Related List, Fields, Buttons etc)
    3. Workflow Rules Overview
  4. Personal Customization (Password Reset, Login Access, Calendar Sharing etc)
  5. System Administration
    1. Roles
    2. Profiles
    3. User Setup
    4. Login History
    5. Queues vi.Groups
  6. Advanced System Administration (Security Controls)
    1. OWD
    2. Sharing Settings
    3. Password Policies
    4. Audit Trail
    5. Communication Templates
    6. Data Loader
    7. Mass Update/Transfer Records
    8. Storage Usage
    9. Monitoring Logs & Jobs
    10. x. Concluding Session with Q&A

2. SALESFORCE DEVELOPER – CONFIGURATION TRACK

  1. CRM Overview
  2. Salesforce Architecture (SaaS, PaaS, On Demand)
  3. Salesforce Applications (Marketing, Sales, Service) Overview
  4. Advanced Configuration
    1. Application Elements (Tabs, App, Links, HomePage Component)
    2. Salesforce Building Blocks & Configuration ( Objects, Page Layouts, Related List, Fields, Buttons, Formula Fields, Relationship fields, Lookup Master Detail, Cross Object, reference Workflows and Approvals, Workflow actions: Email, Tasks, Outbound etc )
    3. Workflow Rules & Approval Processes
    4. Time Dependent Workflows
  5. Personal Customization (Password Reset, Security Token Login Access, Calendar Sharing etc)
  6. System Administration Basics
    1. User Setup
    2. Login History
    3. Queues
    4. Groups
  7. Apex Development Basics
    1. Apex Classes
    2. Apex Triggers
    3. VF Pages
  8. Concluding Session with Q&A

3. SALESFORCE DEVELOPER – CUSTOMIZATION TRACK

  1. CRM Overview
  2. Salesforce Architecture (SaaS, PaaS, On Demand)
  3. Advanced Configuration
    1. Application Elements ( Tabs, App, Links, HomePage Component )
    2. Salesforce Building Blocks & Configuration ( Objects, Page Layouts, Related List, Fields, Buttons, Formula Fields, Relationship Fields, Lookup Master Detail, Cross Object Reference, Workflows and Approvals, Workflow actions: Email, Tasks, Outbound etc )
    3. Workflow Rules & Approval Processes
    4. Time Dependent Workflows
  4. Personal Customization ( Password Reset, Security Token Login Access, Calendar Sharing etc )
  5. Apex Development Building Blocks
    1. Apex Classes
    2. VF Pages
    3. Apex Trigger
    4. SOQL
    5. SOSL
    6. Debugging
    7. System Log
  6. Apex API Programming
    1. SOQL & SOSL
    2. Batch Apex
    3. Writing Apex Classes as Web Services
    4. Email API
  7. Visual Force Programming
    1. SOQL & SOSL
    2. Standard Controller
    3. Custom Controller
    4. List Controller
    5. Controller Extensions
  8. Apex Triggers
    1. Trigger Events
    2. Design Pattern
    3. Bulk Trigger

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47 terms

SaraJabs

Chapter 6: Earth’s History Earth Science Test

STUDY

PLAY

Geologic History
Study & interpretation of the Earth’s past.
Principle of Uniformitarianism
The geological processes in action today are the same as those acted in the past, thus allowing us to interpret the events of the past by studying events currently taking place.
Relative Age
The age of rocks or events in relation to the age of some other rocks (older or younger).
Absolute Age
Age in years of an object or an event.
Principle of Original Horizontality
Sediments are deposited in horizontal layers that are parallel to the surface on which they were deposited.
Principle of Superposition
In a series of undisturbed layers, the oldest layer is on the bottom & each successive overlaying layer is progressively younger.
Principle of Cross-Cutting Relationships
Older rocks may be cut by younger rocks or other geologic features.
Principle of Inclusion
Fragments included in a host rock are older than the host rock.
Rule
All rock layers that have contact metamorphism are older than the intrusion or extrusion.
Intrusion
When molten magma forces its way into cracks or crevices in crustal rock and solidifies. Intrusions are younger than the layers that they pass through.
Extrusion
When lava solidifies at the Earth’s surface.
Rule
Rock layers below the extrusion are older, but rock layers above the extrusion are younger.
Contact Metamorphism Rules
If above and below, it must’ve been an intrusion. If only below it, it must’ve been extrusion.
Faults, Joints & Folds
Are all younger than the rock they are found in.
Joint
A crack in a rock.
Rule
Rock fragments are older than rocks themselves.
Rule
Cracks, veins and mineral cement are younger than the rocks in which the form.
Vein
Mineral deposit in a crack.
Correlation
Matching rock and geologic events in one location with rocks and geologic events in other locations.
Similarity of Rock and Correlation
Appearance, color and composition are carefully examined to make correlations.
Anomaly
Something that does not fit the normal pattern. A misconception.
Bedrock
Solid, unbroken rock of the crust.
Outcrop
Bedrock exposed at the surface.
Index Fossil
Organism that lived over an extensive area for a short period of time.
Volcanic Ash
Act much like index fossils.
Fossil Evidence
Being able to place a series of fossils in a sequence by age allows you to place the rocks in which the fossils are found in the same sequence by age.
Precambrian Era
85% of Earth’s history. No fossil records because: soft bodied plants and animals, fossils have been destroyed.
Paleozoic Era
8.5% of Earth’s history. Invertebrates, fish, amphibians, vertebrates, and land plants and animals appear for the first time.
Trilobite
The Paleozoic Era ended with their extinction.
Mesozoic Era
3.5% of Earth’s history. Dinosaurs and earliest birds and mammals abundant.
Cenozoic Era
3% of Earth’s history. Humanoids appeared in the late Cenozoic Era (0.04% of Earth’s 4.6 billion year history).
Unconformities
Buried erosional surfaces. Some layers are missing.
Angular Unconformities
Tilted, folded or faulted rocks which have been eroded and then covered again.
Parallel Unconformities (Disconformities)
When parallel rock layers of different ages are separated by an erosional surface.
Non-Conformities
When sedimentary rocks are deposited on top of an eroded surface of igneous rocks.
Hiatus
A break or gap in the rock record caused when deposition on submerged rock stops without any erosion.
Principle of Lateral Continuity
An original sedimentary layer extends laterally until it tapers or thins at its edges.
Radioactive Decay
When the nuclei of unstable atoms break down, or decay, giving off particles and energy. It becomes (decays) into a different element.
Isotopes
Atoms of the same element that have the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons.
Half-Life
The time it takes for 1/2 of the atoms of that substance to decay to another element.
Outgassing
The release of gasses from the interior of Earth due to internal heat and chemical reaction.
Free Oxygen
(Oxygen not combined with other elements) however, quickly combined with other gasses like methane and carbon monoxide to form water dioxide.
Photosynthesis
The manufacture of sugars and starches from carbon dioxide and water in the presence of sunlight.
Fossil Records
Most organisms have become extinct. Only tiny fractions of organisms are preserved as fossils.
Conditions Needed to Preserve Fossils
Quick burial and hard shell, bones or teeth.
Species
A group of organisms that can mate and produce fertile offspring.
Evolution Development
Survival of the fittest depends on variation within a species. Older forms of a species are usually less complex than later forms of the same species.

Quizzes   ›   Science   ›   Astronomy   ›   Planet   ›   Earth   ›  Earth’s History Test

Earth’s History Test


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By Carro1an | Last updated: Mar 6, 2012




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  • 1. 
    Scientists use absolute dating to determine
    • A.&nbsp

      The physical appearance of fossils

    • B.&nbsp

      The chemical composition of rocks

    • C.&nbsp

      The numerical age of an object in years

    • D.&nbsp

      The approximate date of a rock layer or fossil

  • 2. 
    The Red Sea formed as the African Plate moved apart from the Arabian Plate. Which type of boundary was involved in the formation of the Red Sea?
    • A.&nbsp

      Transform Boundary

    • B.&nbsp

      Divergent Boundary

    • C.&nbsp

      Stationary Boundary

    • D.&nbsp

      Convergent Boundary

  • 3. 
    Which of the following methods is most likely to be used to determine the absolute age of animal bones that are less than 45,000 years old?
     
    • A.&nbsp

      Relative Dating

    • B.&nbsp

      Potassium-Argon Dating

    • C.&nbsp

      Uranium-Lead Dating

    • D.&nbsp

      Radiocarbon Dating

  • 4. 
    To determine when a volcano erupted, Michael used a sample of a mineral that formed when the lava cooled and became solid rock. He measured the amount of argon-40 in the sample to find how much potassium-40 had decayed since the rock formed. What else would Michael need to know to find the age of the mineral in years?
    • A.&nbsp

      The amount of energy released

    • B.&nbsp

      The mass of a potassium-40 atom

    • C.&nbsp

      The half life of potassium-40

    • D.&nbsp

      The time it takes argon-40 to decay

  • 5. 


    The picture below shows the rock layers in one part of the Grand Canyon.
    Based on the law of superposition, what is the order of these rock layers, from youngest to oldest?
    • A.&nbsp

      1,2,3,4

    • B.&nbsp

      2,1,4,3

    • C.&nbsp

      3,4,1,2

    • D.&nbsp

      4,3,2,1

  • 6. 
    Which of these choices is an example of the way a geologist would use relative dating?
    Discuss
    • A.&nbsp

      Placing rock layers in order of oldest to youngest

    • B.&nbsp

      Determining the minerals that make up rocks

    • C.&nbsp

      Classifying rocks as igneous, sedimentary, or metamorphic

    • D.&nbsp

      Using radioactive isotopes to determine the exact age of rock samples

  • 7. 
    Scientists have determined an approximate age for Earth. To do this, they tested samples of meteorites, rock from the moon, and rocks from other parts of the solar system. Which method could be used to determine the age of these samples?
    Discuss
    • A.&nbsp

      Radiocarbon dating

    • B.&nbsp

      Index fossil dating

    • C.&nbsp

      Sedimentary rock dating

    • D.&nbsp

      Uranium-lead dating

  • 8. 
    A scientist wants to make a geologic column of rock layers from different parts of the state. How will the scientist do this?
    Discuss
    • A.&nbsp

      The scientist will organize the layers by comparing the fossils and types of rocks.

    • B.&nbsp

      The scientist will measure the exact ages of the rocks found in each part of the state.

    • C.&nbsp

      The scientists will look at the surface features in each area to organize the layers.

    • D.&nbsp

      The scientist will select one area in the state and use only those layers to construct the geologic column.

  • 9. 


    Jun makes a poster to explain how the law of superposition applies to rock layers. He explained the ages of the top three layers. He still needs to explain the age of layer 1. His diagram is shown below.
    How should he explain the age of layer 1?
    • A.&nbsp

      It is the youngest layer because it is protected by the other layers.

    • B.&nbsp

      It is the oldest layer because it was deposited before the other layers.

    • C.&nbsp

      It is older than layer 2 because it is thicker and has been worn away the least.

    • D.&nbsp

      It is three times younger than layer 4 because it is three layers below layer 4.

  • 10. 
    What materials does radiometric dating use to determine the age of objects?
     
    • A.&nbsp

      Rock layers

    • B.&nbsp

      Tree rings

    • C.&nbsp

      Fossils

    • D.&nbsp

      Isotopes

  • 11. 


    Scientists from three parts of Florida are comparing the rock layers in their areas. They want to arrange the layers according to their relative ages. The diagram shows the rock layers from each area.
    Which area has the youngest top layer compared to the other areas?
     
    Discuss
    • A.&nbsp

      Area 1

    • B.&nbsp

      Area 2

    • C.&nbsp

      Area 3

    • D.&nbsp

      The ages of the top layers are all the same

  • 12. 
    What is the approximate age of Earth?
     
    • A.&nbsp

      4.6 million years

    • B.&nbsp

      4.6 billion years

    • C.&nbsp

      46,000 years

    • D.&nbsp

      4,600 years

  • 13. 


    The table below shows the half-lives of three isotopes.
    Which statement best explains why these isotopes can be used to date rocks?
     
    • A.&nbsp

      They are all rare isotopes.

    • B.&nbsp

      They are all stable over time.

    • C.&nbsp

      They are all large isotopes.

    • D.&nbsp

      They all decay at set rates.

  • 14. 
    An igneous intrusion cuts through three layers of sedimentary rock. Which rock  layer is the youngest?
     
    • A.&nbsp

      The bottom layer of sedimentary rock

    • B.&nbsp

      The top layer of sedimentary rock

    • C.&nbsp

      The igneous intrusion

    • D.&nbsp

      A relative age can not be determined

  • 15. 


    Layers of rock are not always found in uniform layers. They may be cut by faults. Melted rock may be pushed into the layers, where it becomes solid. The diagram shows rock layers that are cut by a fault and two bodies of rock (rock 1 and rock 2).
    What are the relative ages of the features in order of  youngest to oldest?
     
    Discuss
    • A.&nbsp

      Fault,rock 1, layer 1, rock 2

    • B.&nbsp

      Layer 1,rock 2, rock 1, fault

    • C.&nbsp

      Rock 2, layer 1, rock 1, fault

    • D.&nbsp

      Fault, rock 2, layer 1, rock 1

  • 16. 
    Trace fossils are much more common than body fossils. Which of the following best explains why trace fossils are more common?
     
    • A.&nbsp

      Trace fossils take less time to form.

    • B.&nbsp

      Body fossils require soft sediment to form.

    • C.&nbsp

      An organism is more likely to live on soft sediment where trace fossils form.

    • D.&nbsp

      A single animal can leave thousands of traces in its lifetime but will leave only one body when it dies.

  • 17. 
    As a glacier moves along the ground it transports rocks. These rocks pass over the ground and create scratches in the bedrock. Which statement correctly describes these processes?
    • A.&nbsp

      The transport of rocks is an example of weathering and the scratching of the bedrock is an example of erosion.

    • B.&nbsp

      The transport of rocks and the scratching of the bedrock are both examples of weathering.

    • C.&nbsp

      The transport of rocks and the scratching of the bedrock are both examples of erosion.

    • D.&nbsp

      The transport of rocks is an example of erosion and the scratching of the bedrock is an example of weathering.

  • 18. 
    The difference between the three types of rocks (igneous,sedimentary, and metamorphic) is
    • A.&nbsp

      The layers present

    • B.&nbsp

      The minerals they contain

    • C.&nbsp

      How they are formed

    • D.&nbsp

      Where they are found

  • 19. 
    Why do most earthquakes take place at tectonic plate boundaries
    • A.&nbsp

      The rock in the interior of a tectonic plate is stronger, so it does not deform.

    • B.&nbsp

      Earthquakes take place where energy is transferred to rock by the motion of tectonic plates.

    • C.&nbsp

      Earthquakes can only occur at places where magma can reach the surface and transfer energy to rocks.

    • D.&nbsp

      Earthquakes take place where a cold front meets a warm front.

  • 20. 
    Volcanic islands can form over hot spots. The Hawaiian islands started forming over hot spots in the Pacific Ocean millions of years ago. What process causes the hot, solid rock to rise through the mantle at these locations?
    • A.&nbsp

      Conduction

    • B.&nbsp

      Uniformitarianism

    • C.&nbsp

      Radiation

    • D.&nbsp

      Convection

  • 21. 
    The movement of tectonic plates can affect the Earth in several ways. Which of the following is NOT an effect of tectonic plate movement?
    • A.&nbsp

      Tornado Formation

    • B.&nbsp

      Volcanic Formation

    • C.&nbsp

      Seismic Waves

    • D.&nbsp

      Tsnumai Waves

  • 22. 
    During a class project, Felicia makes a poster to compare scientific laws and scientific theories. Which of the following statements should Felicia include on her poster to summarize the difference between scientific laws and scientific theories?
    Discuss
    • A.&nbsp

      Scientific theories explain why something happens, and scientific laws describe what happens.

    • B.&nbsp

      Scientific theories require scientific evidence and scientific laws do not.

    • C.&nbsp

      Scientific theories are based on observation and scientific laws are based on opinions.

    • D.&nbsp

      Scientific laws are frequently modified, but scientific theories rarely change as new information becomes available.

  • 23. 
    Which description defines a dependent variable in a scientific experiment?
    Discuss
    • A.&nbsp

      Any factor that is controlled during an experiment

    • B.&nbsp

      Any factor that is measured to gather results

    • C.&nbsp

      Any factor that changes during an experiment

    • D.&nbsp

      Any factor that is changed so that it can be tested

  • 24. 
    Which of the following statements best describes why an experiment should be repeated?
    • A.&nbsp

      An experiment should be repeated to ensure that data results are accurate.

    • B.&nbsp

      An experiment should be repeated to change the control variable.

    • C.&nbsp

      An experiment should be repeated to create graphs and write observations.

    • D.&nbsp

      An experiment should be repeated because science is fun.

  • 25. 
    Where do earthquakes occur?
    • A.&nbsp

      Convergent Plate Boundaries

    • B.&nbsp

      Divergent Plate Boundaries

    • C.&nbsp

      Transform Plate Boundaries

    • D.&nbsp

      All of the Above


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    best text picture app

    Louise Myers Visual Social Media

    Rock your online presence with social media graphics! Get Graphic Design & Social Media Marketing tips from an expert.

    You are here: Home / Social Media Tips / Ultimate List! 23 iPhone Apps to Add Text to Photos

    Ultimate List! 23 iPhone Apps to Add Text to Photos

    by 21 Comments

    Ultimate List! 23 iPhone Apps to Add Text to Photos

    Looking for iPhone apps to add text to photos?

    Photos with text are the hottest thing in visual content!

    Images are 93% more likely to be shared on social media than any other type of content.

    If you can’t take a good photo to save your life, images with text are your answer!

    They not only improve and explain your own photos, but many of these apps provide backgrounds, so you don’t even need to supply a photo.

    I’ve searched out 23 typography apps for iPhone. Some of these may be available for Android also, but my links will take you to the Apple App Store.

    (If you have a favorite Android type app, please let me know in a comment, and I’ll compile a list for Android users too!)

    I’ve put the ones I’m familiar with at the top of the list – but YOU can vote up your favorites! Also leave comments right in the list on what you like and don’t.

    And – if you sign up for a free Listly membership, you can embed this list on your own blog.

    Most of the apps cost a few bucks. I suggest you try a few – none can do everything.

    NOTE: If you wish to use apps for your business, be sure to check their Terms of Use to ensure it’s allowed. Read more.

    Below is a brief synopsis of the apps I’ve used and liked. Updated August 31, 2017.

    If you want to go straight to the list, scroll down to the end of this post.

    WordSwag, Typorama and WordDream picture quote samples. WordSwag is the original, but Typorama has added a ton of requested features and I'd call it the best at this time.

    WordSwag and Typorama

    WordSwag  and  Typorama  are similar in that they’re built on a type engine that generates a complete typography design for you at a tap. Tap again and again until you find a design you like.

    They also offer image search right in the app – free, public domain photos from Pixabay. Plus, each app provides unique backgrounds of their own, the ability to choose an image from your camera roll, and quotes to choose from in the app.

    WordSwag  is the original, and it’s great, but  Typorama  has added a number of requested features like overlays, type glow or shadow, 3D effect, and watermark. These are so useful that I can’t imagine why WordSwag hasn’t added them.

    Both include different social media sizes, including ones suitable for Pinterest (use 2:3 in Typorama).

    WordSwag costs $4.99, plus another $1.99 for additional features. Typorama costs $5.99 to unlock all features. You have to pay $4.99 to get rid of their watermark, so go ahead and pay a buck more for full access.

    I had all 3 shown – using 3 different ones gave me variety. If you like the way this type engine works, I’d go with  Typorama . It can be frustrating if you see a design you like and can’t find it again, though.

    Word Dream hasn’t been updated in a while, so I no longer recommend it.

    I haven’t been able to find anything remotely similar for Android users. Sorry!

    The Over app adds text and pre-made text images to your photos. Over

    This is now my preferred iOS design tool. Over app comes with designed templates and text overlays. A few are included in the free version, but you’ll get the best choices if you upgrade to Pro.

    This is as easy as you can get. You don’t even have to think of words! There are also fonts included to use your own text instead of a pre-made greeting.

    Choose an image to use as a background from your camera roll, or search Unsplash for free CC0 photos right in the app.

    You can search Google for images right in the app, but beware – anything you find may be subject to copyright (unlike the search functions in the apps above).

    There are loads of image editing options, text editing options, social media sizes – pretty much everything you need.

    Over is also available for Android, but I believe it’s not as full-featured.

    If you simply need to watermark your photos, PhotoMarks may be your tool.PhotoMarks for watermarking

    If you simply need to watermark your photos, PhotoMarks  may be your tool.

    You can import your logo and adjust the size, transparency, and shadow. Or you can add a line of text and choose font, size, color, transparency, shadow, and stroke (outline).

    The stroke feature isn’t available in any other app that I’m aware of, and it’s a great feature to fine-tune a text watermark.

    If you want more design features, the watermarking capabilities in Over and Typorama may be adequate for your needs.

    While the Rhonna Designs app creates lovely, rather feminine designs, know that this app is for personal use only. Rhonna Designs

    This app needs a special mention.

    While the  Rhonna Designs app  creates lovely, rather feminine designs, I must warn you that the designer stipulates, in capital letters, that this app is for personal use only.

    If you’re looking for graphics to promote your business, you’ll need to contact the designer and purchase a commercial license. ‘Nuff said!

    The apps mentioned above were checked August 31, 2017.

    There are so many more in the list. Check them out! Ensure that they’re up-to-date before purchasing.

    For about the price of a coffee, you can have a fun new app!

    Pin this post so you can come back when you’re ready to try more iPhone apps to add text to photos. Enjoy!

    Ultimate List! 20+ iPhone Apps to Add Text to Photos

    View more lists from Louise Bugglin Myers

    Looking for iPhone apps to add text to photos? It's the hottest thing in visual content! Find a fun typography app you'll love in this ultimate list.

    FREE Report: Social Media that Delights your Audience!

    Join my Social Media Insiders and be in the know 😎
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    Comments

    1. Great selection of mobile apps Louise! I love, love, love WordSwag and InstaQuote, and have tried Over a couple of times. I may have to try it again now that I’m doing graphic quotes more. I use WordSwag on a regular basis. I really do need to check out WordFoto and PathOn though. They both look like very cool apps. Sigh … so many great apps but only so much room on the phone 😉

      Reply
      • Right, Terry, and so little time to play with them all!

        Thanks for visiting. Enjoy your apps!

        Reply
    2. Awesome list!! Most of these are available on Android, also. I use a few, but will definitely try some of the others out. Thank you so much for putting this list together!

      Reply
      • Hi Lisa! I’m glad to hear you’ve found some good apps for Android. I often get asked if something like WordSwag exists for Android and haven’t seen anything like it.

        You’re welcome, enjoy!

        Reply
    3. OOh – awesome list of text photo apps Louise! I used to use Wordswag a lot, but now mostly use Canva to create my images on the laptop, but Wordswag is great for more spontaneous graphic quotes. Love your list and will definitely need to check out listly, seems like a handy site for sure!

      Reply
      • Hey Emily, as the content maven that you are, I think you’ll adore Listly! Listly posts really perform.

        I’ve wondered what you use for your lovely branded images. So, they save from Canva as PNGs? I was curious about the compression I see on Instagram.

        Reply
    4. I would like to append the free app Bold into this great list. : ) Everybody can create a stunning typographic image in just a few taps. Bold is a free app and has no ads no in-app purchases.

      Reply
      • Nice app, Yuanhao, I added it.

        Reply
    5. I must be the only person in the world without an iphone! But thank you for this post, I am going to save it for my daughter! 🙂

      Reply
      • I have a load of fun with these! Hope she does too.

        Reply
        • Hi there!
          I’m planning to start my own blog with picture quotes but I don’t have iPhone, do you know any good apps for android?

          Thanks!

          Reply
          • Hi Kris,

            WordSwag is now available for Android. It’s a good one. Over is also available, but it says non-commercial use only, so it depends how you want to use it.

            I believe Adobe Spark Post is also on Android. It’s a good one that allows commercial use. Always check the terms if you have something specific in mind, like selling the images.

            Reply
    6. What a great list! Lots of these I’d never heard of before. Thanks Louise.

      Reply
      • I’m glad you like it, Jo!

        Reply
    7. I am so amazed to see big list of these apps. I use only two or three apps to add text in photos but you have given me more options. Now I can use different types of apps for adding text.

      Thanks for sharing this amazing post.

      Reply
      • Enjoy!

        Reply
    8. Thank you Louise. I’m glad to open smth new for me. I’ve never added text to photos and used only filters. Hope it can help my sister to gain success in her IG promotion and make content more interesting and breathtaking. Anyway, she doesn’t see the world through rose-colored glasses and use zengram.net for increasing her audience. It would be foolish to don’t seize an opportunity and try this service, especially when it brings interested followers, which are not fakes or ghosts. Do yo use smth like that?

      Reply
      • Hi Simon,
        Yes, I have tried Instagress, but since it’s against IG’s terms of service, I don’t use it any more. You run the risk of having your account closed.

        Reply
    9. Your kind of knowledge is great. I want to install twenty-second app in my Android phone. Can i install just now. Thanks, hopefully its will fun for me.

      Reply
    10. Have you any updated advice now on these type of apps? I really am excited to play with some you suggested! I’m new to iPhone and this granny would love to impress her grands and grown kids!

      Reply
      • Hi Debby,

        The only one I use now is Over.

        Reply

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