Category: chemistry - WriteEssaydatesCom

National Museum of Anthropology
Museum, Mexico City, Mexico

National Museum of Anthropology

View All Media

  • 1825 – present

National Museum of Anthropology



You have successfully emailed this.
Error when sending the email. Try again later.

Edit Mode

National Museum of Anthropology
Museum, Mexico City, Mexico

Tips For Editing

We welcome suggested improvements to any of our articles. You can make it easier for us to review and, hopefully, publish your contribution by keeping a few points in mind.

  1. Encyclopædia Britannica articles are written in a neutral objective tone for a general audience.
  2. You may find it helpful to search within the site to see how similar or related subjects are covered.
  3. Any text you add should be original, not copied from other sources.
  4. At the bottom of the article, feel free to list any sources that support your changes, so that we can fully understand their context. (Internet URLs are the best.)

Your contribution may be further edited by our staff, and its publication is subject to our final approval. Unfortunately, our editorial approach may not be able to accommodate all contributions.

Thank You for Your Contribution!

Our editors will review what you’ve submitted, and if it meets our criteria, we’ll add it to the article.

Please note that our editors may make some formatting changes or correct spelling or grammatical errors, and may also contact you if any clarifications are needed.

Uh Oh

There was a problem with your submission. Please try again later.

Keep Exploring Britannica

A U.S. battleship sinks during the Pearl Harbor attack.

Pearl Harbor attack
Pearl Harbor attack, (December 7, 1941), surprise aerial attack on the U.S. naval base at Pearl Harbor…

Read this Article

Churchill, Winston; Truman, Harry; Stalin, Joseph

World War II
World War II, conflict that involved virtually every part of the world during the years 1939–45. The…

Read this Article

A British soldier inside a trench on the Western Front during World War I, 1914–18.

World War I
World War I, an international conflict that in 1914–18 embroiled most of the nations of Europe along…

Read this Article

go to homepage

  • Home
  • Spotlight
  • Demystified
  • Quizzes
  • Galleries
  • Lists
  • On This Day
  • Biographies

  • Login
  • Join

National Museum of Anthropology
museum, Mexico City, Mexico
View All Media

(2 ImageModels)










Thank you for your feedback

Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article.

Join Britannica’s Publishing Partner Program and our community of experts to gain a global audience for your work!








Email this page


Download our free Chrome extension, Britannica Insights.

Britannica Insights screenshot

Facts matter and Britannica Insights makes it easier to find them.

Install for Chrome Now

Learn more

online paper craft stores

Free Shipping on orders of $50 or more. See Details>


CreateForLess Logo

Sign In / Register

Product Types
  • Threads
  • Papers
  • Paints
  • More Product Types

  • Coats & Clark
  • Paper Accents
  • Darice
  • More Brands

Hot Products
  • Dual Duty Plus Hand…
  • Design Master…
  • Paper Accents 12 x…
  • More Hot Products
Save on Paper Accents & PA Essentials!

Shop Now ►

Paper Accents 12 x 12 in. Cardstock
Paper Accents 12 x 12 in. Cardstock
SALE $0.49-$112.50
PA Essentials Eyes
PA Essentials Eyes
SALE $0.49-$7.19pan>
Paper Accents Chipboard Sheets
Paper Accents Chipboard Sheets
SALE $0.69-$32.25
PA Paper Mache
PA Paper Mache
SALE $0.49-$87.48
See All

Save up to 70% off!
Slice Design Cards
Slice Design Cards
Tombow Color Pencil Set Recycle Tin 24 pc.
Tombow Color Pencil Set Recycle Tin 24 pc.
American Crafts Knock Outs Punches
American Crafts Knock Outs Punches
Heidi Swapp Marquee Love Kits
Heidi Swapp Marquee Love Kits


Buy school supplies in bulk at CreateForLess!

Shop Today ►

Think Crafts Blog! View All

Kid-Made Memory Game

Here’s a great boredom buster for the kids in your life–a game to make, and then play! More

Free Stuff Friday Winner!!

It’s Monday which means it time to find out who is lucky enough to snag the CutterPillar Light Pad! Congratulations Shirley R!! And don’t forget to come back on Friday for another chance to win another great prize!! More

Newsletter Sign Up

Get sales alerts, exclusive offers & a chance to win a $100 shopping spree!

Sign up for e-mail updates

Gift Certificates the perfect gift for every crafter

Today on Facebook

Valentine’s Day will be here soon and it’s time to start planning and creating those special cards for the loved on…

What’s New

Simple Stories Collection Very Merry Paper 12 in. x 12 in. Elements 4 in. x 4 in. Picture
Simple Stories Collection Very Merry Paper 12 in. x 12 in. Elements 4 in. x 4 in.
More New Products

  • NEW!
  • Shop By
    • NEW!
    • Pre-Order
    • Coming Soon

    • Gift Cards
    • Category
    • Brand
    • Theme
    • Color
    • Misc
    • Clearance
    • Hot!

    • Pet Supplies
    • Dogs
    • Cats
  • Paper Crafts
    • Adhesives
    • Albums
    • Binders
    • Brads
    • Buttons
    • Calendars
    • Cardstock
    • Cutting Tools
    • Decorative Tape
    • Dies
    • Embellishments
    • Embossing Folders
    • Embossing Powder
    • Ephemera
    • Flowers
    • Glue
    • Ink Pads
    • Journals
    • Kits
    • Machines
    • Markers
    • Paint
    • Paper
    • Paint, Dyes & Chalk
    • Pencils
    • Pens
    • Planners & Accessories
    • Scissors
    • Sealants & Mediums
    • Stamps
    • Stencils
    • Storage
    • Stickers
    • Templates
    • Tools
    • Washi Tape
  • General Crafts
    • Basket Making
    • Bath & Body
    • Beading
    • Body Art
    • Calendars
    • Calligraphy & Printmaking
    • Candle Making
    • Charms
    • Childrens Crafts
    • Coloring Books
    • Craft Lighting
    • Cutting Mats
    • Decoupage
    • Doll House Crafts
    • Doll Making
    • Fabric Paints & Markers
    • Felting Kits
    • Foam Crafts
    • Food Crafts
    • Glass Crafts
    • Glue
    • Hemp Cord
    • Home Décor
    • Hot Glue Guns
    • Idea Books
    • Ink
    • Jewelry
    • Jewelry Making
    • Journals
    • Leather Crafts
    • Machines
    • Macramé
    • Magnifiers
    • Modeling Kits
    • Origami
    • Paint
    • Paint, Dyes & Chalk
    • Party Goods
    • Pencils
    • Pens
    • Planners
    • Plastic Canvas
    • Powdered Pigment
    • Quilling Kits
    • Ribbon
    • Scissors
    • Screen Printing
    • Sealants & Mediums
    • Stencils
    • Storage
    • Tools
    • Totes & Bags
    • Toys
    • Trimmers
    • Wood Crafts
  • Needle Arts
    • Accessories
    • Fabric Care
    • Lighting
    • Magnifiers
    • Stitch Frames & Hoops
    • Crewel Kits
    • Crochet
    • Crochet Hooks
    • Crochet Thread
    • Crochet Books
    • Embroidery Kits
    • Embroidery Floss
    • Evenweave Fabrics
    • Felt Applique
    • Fibers
    • Frames & Hoops
    • Cross Stitch
    • Cross Stitch Accessories
    • Aida Cloth
    • Cross Stitch Books
    • Bucilla
    • Dimensions
    • DMC Floss
    • Jack Dempsey
    • Janlynn
    • Cross Stitch Kits
    • RIOLIS
    • Stamped Goods
    • Knit & Crochet Kits
    • Knitting
    • Knitting Books
    • Knitting Gifts
    • Knitting Machines & Looms
    • Knitting Needles
    • Latch Hook Kits
    • Needles
    • Needlepoint
    • Organizers
    • Plastic Canvas
    • Stitching Fibers
    • Stitching Notions
    • Tatting
    • Wool Roving
    • Yarn
    • All
    • Lily Sugar"N Cream
    • Lion Brand
    • Red Heart
  • Sewing & Quilting
    • Adhesives & Sewing Kits
    • Appliques
    • Buttons
    • Craft Lighting
    • Cutters & Accessories
    • Fabric
    • Fabric Care
    • Fabric Dies
    • Fabric Glue
    • Fabric Paints & Markers
    • Fasteners
    • Felt Applique
    • Felting Kits
    • Fibers
    • Interfacing
    • Intimates
    • Iron-Ons
    • Lighting Magnifiers
    • Measuring Tools
    • Mesh
    • Organizers
    • Patches
    • Patterns & Books
    • Photo Transfer
    • Pins & Needles
    • Hand Needles
    • Machine Needles
    • Pins & Cushions
    • Pressing & Design Tools
    • Quilting
    • Quilting Accessories
    • Quilt Blocks
    • Quilting Kits
    • Ribbon
    • Rotary Cutting & Mats
    • Rulers
    • Sewing Kits
    • Sewing Notions
    • Sewing Scissors
    • Templates & Stencils
    • Thread
    • Tracing & Marking
    • Tulle
    • Zippers
  • Art Supplies
    • Accessories
    • Airbrush
    • Books & Media
    • Calligraphy & Printmaking
    • Canvas
    • Charcoals
    • Ink
    • Kits & Sets
    • Markers
    • Office Supplies
    • Organizers
    • Pastels
    • Paint
    • Acrylics
    • Finishes
    • Gessos
    • Paint Brushes
    • Paint, Dyes & Chalk
    • Pencils
    • Pens
    • Sealants, Glazes, Mediums
    • Sketchbooks & Pads
    • Watercolors

    Promo Code: FREESHIPPING

    Free standard domestic shipping with $69 purchase (US 48 contiguous states and US military addresses APO/FPO/DPO only). Required purchase amount does not include gift cards, taxes, S/H and is calculated after all product discounts and redeemed points have been applied. All other shipping addresses and methods will receive a 20% shipping discount. Some products may be excluded from this promotion and will have the following notice in the product detail view: “This item does not qualify for free shipping.” May not be combined with other promo codes. Valid for a limited time only.


    888-381-9399 toll free
    989-498-4001 local

    [email protected]

    Local Pick-Up:
    A Cherry on Top
    2216 Midland Road
    Saginaw, MI 48603


    Shipping Policy
    Return Policy
    Calendar Of Events

    About Us
    Privacy Statement
    Terms of Use


    My Account Details
    My Basket
    My Orders
    My Downloads
    My Wishlist
    My Points
    My Newsletter Settings
    My Product Notifications
    My Promo Codes


    Shop New
    Shop On Sale
    Shop Clearance
    Shop Back in Stock



    Scrapbook Adhesives
    Scrapbook Albums
    Scrapbook Cardstock
    Scrapbook Embellishments
    Scrapbook Kits
    Scrapbook Paper
    Scrapbook Punches

    Security Seals BizRate Circle of Excellence Site – MERCHANT Reviews at Bizrate

    Copyright © 2002-2018, A Cherry On Top, All Rights Reserved
    A Cherry On Top ™

      Follow us on Twitter   See our Blog   See us on YouTube   Join us on Facebook

    looking for someone to do a paper

    Sing in

    We can write your paper!

    Provide us with detailed instructions and a reasonable deadline, and relax knowing your assignment will be emailed to you on time.

    Submit instructions

    We Are The Best When It Comes To Writing Papers For Money

    It’s that time again where you’ve got more work to do than time. Experts tell you to delegate certain tasks, so that you can focus on the most important stuff. For college students, that may be finding someone who is willing to write research papers for money.

    Why Find Someone to Write Papers for Money

    Throughout your college career, you’ll have essays, research projects and many other assignments in your classes. If you can find someone to write academic papers for money, you’ll lessen your workload. The result will be better scores. When you work with experts to help with writing term papers for money, they treat each task like a real job and provide professional results. You won’t have to worry about missed deadlines or trying to put together something at the last minute.


    Affordable rates

    Top quality for a reasonable price. Guaranteed.

    100% Unique content

    We write each and every paper from scratch.

    Any subject or topic

    We have experts in almost all academic fields.

    US & UK writers

    Our writers are Native English speakers.

    24/7 Customer Support

    We are here round-the-clock to help you.

    Choose your writer
    Toll-free 1(855) 933-7467

    What to Consider When Searching for a Professional Writer

    There are several things to consider when searching for someone to help you with your writing projects. While you may think about working with someone you know, perhaps a student, a writing service is often a better idea. For one thing, you won’t rely on just one person but an entire staff of writers who are professionals and able to meet deadlines consistently.
    You also want someone who knows the subject you need to create a report on. Someone who is willing to write college papers for money will spend less time researching and be able to create higher-quality projects. This saves you time and worry about your class reports and essays.

    Choosing a Company

    Whether you are looking for someone to write or edit papers for money, you want to work with a company that has a solid reputation. is well-recognized for the quality of writers we use to assist our customers. They all provide custom papers that meet customer expectations.
    Because the service is online, all you have to do is submit a form with detailed instructions about your project. We team you up with a writer who has relevant knowledge and experience for the task. You can rest assured that we will provide high-quality results and meet deadlines. With 24-hour customer service and discounts, our service is both timely and affordable.
    With numerous projects and assignments taking up your valuable time, it only makes sense for the average college student to team up with someone who is writing papers for money. You can be assured of exceptional results while you work on other projects to which you are better suited or you have more experience. When you receive the final product, you will have something you are proud to hand in to your professor.



    From $17.55

    per page


    From $11.70

    per page

    Order now

    • Home
    • How It Works
    • Prices
    • Blog
    • Reviews
    • Essay Examples

    • Order now



    With the overwhelming amount of writing assignments, a student cannot help noticing that some of these assignments are more relevant to his or her future profession than the others. For example, a future dentist can only wonder why would he be expected to write a 4000-word essay about his or her reflections on Lord Oscar Wilde’s A Picture of Dorian Gray. English language and literature have little to nothing to do with this student’s future profession, so (s)he quite understandably finds the topic uninteresting and irrelevant. Such a student will not have much to say on the given theme.

    A “write my paper for me” service, on the other hand, is guaranteed to have a highly qualified writer for any given field, even for the most narrow and specific topic.


    As we have discussed, by turning to an online essay writing service , you will make sure that your papers will be dealt with by professional paper writer. This means that your paper is sure to be well-written and to comply with all the requirements that your school may set to this paper.

    Of course, schools offer guidelines to aid their students in writing the academic papers in accordance with all the style and format requirements. However, these guidelines are often confusing, which leads to the students getting lower grades because of such minute and unimportant details.

    A pro writer does it for a living, so the one in charge of your order will be able to ensure your paper being well-written and meeting all the requirements there are to meet.


    This is another argument in favor of finding a pro to write my college paper. An important part of the custom writer’s professionalism is good time management which means that your order will always be delivered on time. Meeting deadlines is essential for a custom writing service s, so they simply will not hire someone who does not do what s/he is required on time.

    Given the competition in the custom writing market, failure to meet the client’s deadline even once can be deadly to the writing company. So, when you pay someone to write my paper, you can safely rest assured that your order will be completed no later than the date that you have specified when placing the order.

    Order Now


    With today’s development of information technologies, it is not complicated at all to find someone to write your papers for you. It is not like you have to use a proxy service to browse the deep web. In fact, the custom writing niche is quite oversaturated with offers from numerous companies. The market is highly competitive, and the companies have to struggle for every client.


    There are a lot of companies offering writing services, but they are not equally good. If you decide to pay to write paper, the choice needs to be treated with all seriousness. After all, it is your grades that will be influenced by the quality of those writings.

    When you google “pay for essay” or something like that, you get dozens of search results pages with websites of custom writing services, enough to get completely lost in. To chose the one to trust such an important thing to do, it is best to see the reviews and testimonials from actual customers. Some companies place generic testimonials that only claim to be from actual people, but it is quite easy to tell the fake ones from the real ones.


    We do not pay so much attention to our competitors, so we do not have a lot to say about them. Our passion is academic writing and helping students to get through their college. We are not just someone to pay for essay, but we are a team of inspired professionals.

    We do your essay with care and attention that it deserves. If you look through the testimonials of our happy customers, you will see that we always deliver on time and with top-quality performance. We have all been students not so long ago, so we realize how important it is to submit an excellent writing. This is why we only work with top writers to ensure the best writings for our student customers.

    Order Now
    Get a priсe quote & procced with the order

    You may also like
    Buy Dissertation
    Essay Examples

    Start a Live Chat with an Operator

    Chat Now!

    Custom Writing
    Admission Essay
    Analytical Essay
    Descriptive Essay
    Write My Paper

    Homework Help
    Buy Essay
    MBA Essay

    Copyright Notice Protection Status

    We accept:

    Copyright © EliteEssayWriters 2018 All Rights Reserved

    Look here!
    Don’t forget to Grab Your Bonus!
    On your order

    Time is up!

    Order Now With Discount

    Best Price Guarantee!
    Do you need

    professional academic help in writing

    get my discount

    post mba graduate certificate

    Macquarie University Graduate School of Management

    Search Site

    Graduate Certificate of Management – Post MBA

    Graduate Certificate of Management – Post MBA

    Continual learning and development are vital to driving professional advancement and personal growth – and this is the philosophy that drives our university-recognised Graduate Certificate of Management Post-MBA.

    The first of its kind in Australia and offered to all MBA graduates (not just graduates from MGSM), this program teaches the latest management concepts and tools to help you keep pace with the changing face of business.

    Whether it’s been some time since completing your MBA and you want to update your skills or it’s broader knowledge in an entirely new area of expertise you seek, the Graduate Certificate of Management Post-MBA program is an opportunity to recharge your career, capabilities and network.

    Graduate Certificate of Management – Post MBA quick facts

    Question Answer
    Entry requirements
    • MBA qualification and a minimum of two years’ relevant work experience, at a managerial or professional level, for direct entry into the Graduate Certificate Post-MBA.
    • If you are an international applicant, you may be required to demonstrate proficiency in English.
    StructureChoose four course units from over 30 options.

    State-of-the-art lecture theatres and modern, well-equipped, syndicate rooms at:

    • North Ryde
    • Sydney CBD
    • Hong Kong.
    Costs of tuition
    • The fees for 2017 & 2018 are $4,000.00 per course unit.
    • We recommend you also allow approximately $120 per course unit textbook.


    You can choose four course units from over 30 options for your Post-MBA studies, provided you have not already studied them through the MBA Program. The units you choose can be studied at our North Ryde, Sydney CBD or Hong Kong campus, or any combination of our campus locations.

    More on course units .


    The Graduate Certificate of Management Post-MBA program can be completed in three to six months, or a maximum of one year, depending on timetable availability.

    Each course unit involves 40 hours of face-to-face lectures, and an additional workload of up to 140 hours over the 10-week term. Students spend this time preparing for lectures, projects, presentations and exams, as well as completing individual and group assignments.

    The Graduate Certificate of Management Post-MBA program is available at our North Ryde, Sydney CBD or Hong Kong campuses.

    Entry requirements

    The Graduate Certificate of Management Post-MBA program is open to candidates who already have an MBA from a recognised institution.

    English language requirements

    Applicants who are relying on qualifications gained in countries where English is not the first spoken language may be required to demonstrate proficiency in English.

    English language tests recognised by MGSM are International English Language Testing Service (IELTS) or Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL).

    Applicants should arrange their own test and gain at least the following scores:

    Test* Required Score
    IELTS 2018: 7.0 overall (minimum 6.0 in each band)         

    TOEFL – internet


    Minimum of:

    100 overall:
    12 in Listening
    21 in Writing
    13 in Reading
    18 in Speaking

    * MGSM reserves the right, in addition to the above, to administer further testing.

    Term dates

    2018 Intakes

    MGSM has a four term academic year and students can elect to start their program at the beginning of any term. Terms consist of ten weeks of class, one week for exams and one week vacation.

    Upcoming MGSM term dates

    Term/YearStudy Ready WorkshopClass DatesApplication Deadline InternationalApplication Deadline Domestic
    Term 3 201823 or 24 June 201825 June – 09 September 201811 May 201825 May 2018
    Term 4 201815 September 201817 September – 26 November 201803 August 201817 August 2018
    Term 1 201905 or 06 January 201907 January – 24 March 201908 November 201823 November 2018
    Term 2 201930 or 31 March 201901 April – 16 June 201908 February 201901 March 2019

    Term dates include exam week.

    How to apply

    See the full list of steps and documents required to apply .

    Contact us

    • Phone: +61 2 9850 9017 Mon to Fri: 8:30am – 5:30pm AEDT
    • See locations
    • Come to an information session

    Ask a question

    Top FAQs

    • What are the MBA application dates?
    • How can I talk to someone about my career?
    • What is RPL?

    Steve Cox, MGSM Alumni

    The MGSM MBA

    “Without the MBA I do not believe that I would be in the position that I am in today”

    MGSM Alumni
    Steve Cox
    Managing Director,

    Back to the
    of this page

    development of the english language

    History of English

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    Jump to navigation
    Jump to search

    English is a West Germanic language that originated from Anglo-Frisian dialects brought to Britain in the mid 5th to 7th centuries AD by Anglo-Saxon settlers from what is now northwest Germany , west Denmark and the Netherlands , displacing the Celtic languages that previously predominated.

    The Old English of the Anglo-Saxon era developed into Middle English , which was spoken from the Norman Conquest era to the late 15th century. A significant influence on the shaping of Middle English came from contact with the North Germanic languages spoken by the Scandinavians who conquered and colonized parts of Britain during the 8th and 9th centuries; this contact led to much lexical borrowing and grammatical simplification. Another important influence came from the conquering Normans, who spoke a Romance langue d’oïl called Old Norman , which in Britain developed into Anglo-Norman . Many Norman and French loanwords entered the language in this period, especially in vocabulary related to the church, the court system and the government. The system of orthography that became established during the Middle English period is by and large still in use today – later changes in pronunciation, however, combined with the adoption of various foreign spellings, mean that the spelling of modern English words appears highly irregular.

    Early Modern English – the language used by Shakespeare – is dated from around 1500. It incorporated many Renaissance -era loans from Latin and Ancient Greek , as well as borrowings from other European languages, including French, German and Dutch . Significant pronunciation changes in this period included the ongoing Great Vowel Shift , which affected the qualities of most long vowels . Modern English proper, similar in most respects to that spoken today, was in place by the late 17th century. The English language came to be exported to other parts of the world through British colonisation , and is now the dominant language in Britain and Ireland , the United States and Canada , Australia , New Zealand and many smaller former colonies, as well as being widely spoken in India , parts of Africa , and elsewhere. Partially due to United States influence, English gradually took on the status of a global lingua franca in the second half of the 20th century. This is especially true in Europe, where English has largely taken over the former roles of French and (much earlier) Latin as a common language used to conduct business and diplomacy, share scientific and technological information, and otherwise communicate across national boundaries. The efforts of English-speaking Christian missionaries has resulted in English becoming a second language for many other groups.[ citation needed ]

    Old English consisted of a diverse group of dialects , reflecting the varied origins of the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms established in different parts of Britain. The Late West Saxon dialect eventually became dominant; however, a greater input to Middle English came from the Anglian dialects . Global variation among different English dialects and accents remains significant today. Scots , a form of English traditionally spoken in parts of Scotland and the north of Ireland, is sometimes treated as a separate language.


    • 1 Proto-English
    • 2 Old English
      • 2.1 Scandinavian influence
    • 3 Middle English
    • 4 Early Modern English
    • 5 Modern English
    • 6 Phonological changes
      • 6.1 Introduction
      • 6.2 Vowel changes
      • 6.3 Examples
    • 7 Grammatical changes
      • 7.1 Evolution of English pronouns
        • 7.1.1 Interrogative pronouns
        • 7.1.2 First person personal pronouns
        • 7.1.3 Second person personal pronouns
        • 7.1.4 Third person personal pronouns
    • 8 Examples
      • 8.1 Beowulf
      • 8.2 Voyages of Ohthere and Wulfstan
      • 8.3 Ayenbite of Inwyt
      • 8.4 Canterbury Tales
      • 8.5 Paradise Lost
      • 8.6 Oliver Twist
    • 9 See also
    • 10 Notes
    • 11 References
    • 12 External links

    Proto-English[ edit ]

    Main article: Celtic language-death in England
    Main article: Saxon shore

    English has its roots in the languages of the Germanic peoples of northern Europe. During the Roman Empire , most of the Germanic-inhabited area ( Germania ) remained independent from Rome, although some southwestern parts were within the empire. Some Germanics served in the Roman military , and troops from Germanic tribes such as the Tungri , Batavi , Menapii and Frisii served in Britain ( Britannia ) under Roman command. Germanic settlement and power expanded during the Migration Period , which saw the fall of the Western Roman Empire . The Germanic settlement of Britain took place from the 5th to the 7th century, following the end of Roman rule on the island. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle relates that around the year 449 Vortigern , king of the Britons , invited the “Angle kin” (Angles allegedly led by the Germanic brothers Hengist and Horsa ) to help repel invading Picts , in return for lands in the southeast of Britain. This led to waves of settlers who eventually established seven kingdoms, known as the heptarchy . (The Chronicle was not a contemporaneous work, however, and cannot be regarded as an accurate record of such early events.) [1] Bede , who wrote his Ecclesiastical History in AD 731, writes of invasion by Angles , Saxons and Jutes , although the precise nature of the invasion and settlement and the contributions made by these particular groups are the subject of much dispute among historians. [2]

    The languages spoken by the Germanic peoples who initially settled in Britain were part of the West Germanic branch of the Germanic language family. They consisted of dialects from the Ingvaeonic grouping, spoken mainly around the North Sea coast, in regions that lie within modern Denmark , north-west Germany and the Netherlands . Due to specific similarities between early English and Old Frisian , an Anglo-Frisian grouping is also identified.

    These dialects had most of the typical West Germanic features, including a significant amount of grammatical inflection . Vocabulary came largely from the core Germanic stock, although due to the Germanic peoples’ extensive contacts with the Roman world, the settlers’ languages already included a number of loanwords from Latin . [3] For instance, the predecessor of Modern English wine had been borrowed into early Germanic from the Latin vinum.

    Old English[ edit ]

    The first page of the Beowulf manuscript

    Main article: Old English

    The dialects spoken by the Germanic settlers developed into a language that would come to be called Anglo-Saxon, or now more commonly Old English . [4] It displaced the so-called indigenous Brittonic Celtic (and the Latin of the former Roman rulers ) in most of the areas of Britain that later formed the Kingdom of England , while Celtic languages remained in most of Scotland , Wales and Cornwall , and many compound Celtic-Germanic placenames survive, hinting at early language mixing. [5] Old English continued to exhibit local variation, the remnants of which continue to be found in dialects of Modern English. [4] The four main dialects were Mercian , Northumbrian , Kentish and West Saxon ; the last of these formed the basis for the literary standard of the later Old English period, although the dominant forms of Middle and Modern English would develop mainly from Mercian.

    Old English was first written using a runic script called the futhorc , but this was replaced by a version of the Latin alphabet introduced by Irish missionaries in the 9th century. Most literary output was in either the Early West Saxon of Alfred the Great ‘s time, or the Late West Saxon (regarded as the “classical” form of Old English) of the Winchester school inspired by Bishop Æthelwold of Winchester and followed by such writers as the prolific Ælfric of Eynsham (“the Grammarian”). The most famous surviving work from the Old English period is the epic poem Beowulf , composed by an unknown poet.

    The introduction of Christianity from around the year 600 encouraged the addition of over 400 Latin loan words into Old English, such as the predecessors of the modern priest, paper, and school, and a smaller number of Greek loan words. [6] The speech of eastern and northern parts of England was also subject to strong Old Norse influence due to Scandinavian rule and settlement beginning in the 9th century (see below).

    Most native English speakers today find Old English unintelligible, even though about half of the most commonly used words in Modern English have Old English roots. [7] The grammar of Old English was much more inflected than modern English, combined with freer word order , and was grammatically quite similar in some respects to modern German . The language had demonstrative pronouns (equivalent to this and that) but did not have definite article the. The Old English period is considered to have evolved into the Middle English period some time after the Norman conquest of 1066, when the language came to be influenced significantly by the new ruling class’s language, Old Norman . [8] [9]

    Scandinavian influence[ edit ]

    The approximate extent of Old Norse and related languages in the early 10th century:

      Old West Norse dialect
      Old East Norse dialect
       Old Gutnish
       Old English
       Crimean Gothic
      Other Germanic languages with which Old Norse still retained some mutual intelligibility

    Vikings from modern-day Norway and Denmark began to raid parts of Britain from the late 8th century onward. In 865, however, a major invasion was launched by what the Anglo-Saxons called the Great Heathen Army , which eventually brought large parts of northern and eastern England (the Danelaw ) under Scandinavian control. Most of these areas were retaken by the English under Edward the Elder in the early 10th century, although York and Northumbria were not permanently regained until the death of Eric Bloodaxe in 954. Scandinavian raids resumed in the late 10th century during the reign of Æthelred the Unready , and Sweyn Forkbeard eventually succeeded in briefly being declared king of England in 1013, followed by the longer reign of his son Cnut from 1016 to 1035, and Cnut’s sons Harold Harefoot and Harthacnut until 1042.

    The Scandinavians, or Norsemen , spoke dialects of a North Germanic language known as Old Norse . The Anglo-Saxons and the Scandinavians thus spoke related languages from different branches (West and North) of the Germanic family; many of their lexical roots were the same or similar, although their grammatical systems were more divergent. Probably significant numbers of Norse speakers settled in the Danelaw during the period of Scandinavian control. Many place-names in those areas are of Scandinavian provenance (those ending in -by, for example); it is believed that the settlers often established new communities in places that had not previously been developed by the Anglo-Saxons. The extensive contact between Old English and Old Norse speakers, including the possibility of intermarriage that resulted from the acceptance of Christianity by the Danes in 878, [10] undoubtedly influenced the varieties of those languages spoken in the areas of contact. Some scholars even believe that Old English and Old Norse underwent a kind of fusion and that the resulting English language might be described as a mixed language or creole . During the rule of Cnut and other Danish kings in the first half of the 11th century, a kind of diglossia may have come about, with the West Saxon literary language existing alongside the Norse-influenced Midland dialect of English, which could have served as a koine or spoken lingua franca. When Danish rule ended, and particularly after the Norman Conquest , the status of the minority Norse language presumably declined relative to that of English, and its remaining speakers assimilated to English in a process involving language shift and language death . The widespread bilingualism that must have existed during the process possibly contributed to the rate of borrowings from Norse into English. [11]

    Only about 100 or 150 Norse words, mainly connected with government and administration, are found in Old English writing. The borrowing of words of this type was stimulated by Scandinavian rule in the Danelaw and during the later reign of Cnut. However, most surviving Old English texts are based on the West Saxon standard that developed outside the Danelaw; it is not clear to what extent Norse influenced the forms of the language spoken in eastern and northern England at that time. Later texts from the Middle English era, now based on an eastern Midland rather than a Wessex standard, reflect the significant impact that Norse had on the language. In all, English borrowed about 2000 words from Old Norse , several hundred surviving in Modern English . [11]

    Norse borrowings include many very common words, such as anger, bag, both, hit, law, leg, same, skill, sky, take, window, and even the pronoun they . Norse influence is also believed to have reinforced the adoption of the plural copular verb form are rather than alternative Old English forms like sind. It is also considered to have stimulated and accelerated the morphological simplification found in Middle English, such as the loss of grammatical gender and explicitly marked case (except in pronouns). [12] That is possibly confirmed by observations that simplification of the case endings occurred earliest in the north and latest in the southwest. The spread of phrasal verbs in English is another grammatical development to which Norse may have contributed (although here a possible Celtic influence is also noted). [11]

    Middle English[ edit ]

    Main article: Middle English

    Middle English is the form of English spoken roughly from the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 until the end of the 15th century.

    For centuries after the Conquest, the Norman kings and high-ranking nobles in England and to some extent elsewhere in the British Isles spoke Anglo-Norman , a variety of Old Norman , originating from a northern langue d’oïl dialect. Merchants and lower-ranked nobles were often bilingual in Anglo-Norman and English, whilst English continued to be the language of the common people. Middle English was influenced by both Anglo-Norman, and later Anglo-French (see characteristics of the Anglo-Norman language ).

    Opening prologue of ” The Wife of Bath’s Tale ” from the Canterbury Tales

    Until the 14th century, Anglo-Norman and then French were the language of the courts and government. Even after the decline of Norman, standard French retained the status of a formal or prestige language , and about 10,000 French (and Norman) loan words entered Middle English, particularly terms associated with government, church, law, the military, fashion, and food [13] (see English language word origins and List of English words of French origin ). The strong influence of Old Norse on English (described in the previous section) also becomes apparent during this period. The impact of the native British Celtic languages that English continued to displace is generally held to be much smaller, although some attribute such analytic verb forms as the continuous aspect (“to be doing” or “to have been doing”) to Celtic influence. [14] [15] Some scholars have also put forward hypotheses that Middle English was a kind of creole language resulting from contact between Old English and either Old Norse or Anglo-Norman.

    English literature began to reappear after 1200, when a changing political climate and the decline in Anglo-Norman made it more respectable. The Provisions of Oxford , released in 1258, was the first English government document to be published in the English language after the Norman Conquest. In 1362, Edward III became the first king to address Parliament in English. The Pleading in English Act 1362 made English the only language in which court proceedings could be held, though the official record remained in Latin. [16] By the end of the century, even the royal court had switched to English. Anglo-Norman remained in use in limited circles somewhat longer, but it had ceased to be a living language. Official documents began to be produced regularly in English during the 15th century. Geoffrey Chaucer , who lived in the late 14th century, is the most famous writer from the Middle English period, and The Canterbury Tales is his best-known work.

    The English language changed enormously during the Middle English period, both in vocabulary and pronunciation, and in grammar. While Old English is a heavily inflected language ( synthetic ), the use of grammatical endings diminished in Middle English ( analytic ). Grammar distinctions were lost as many noun and adjective endings were levelled to -e. The older plural noun marker -en (retained in a few cases such as children and oxen) largely gave way to -s, and grammatical gender was discarded. Definite article þe appears around 1200, later spelled as the, first appearing in East and North England as a substitute for Old English se and seo, nominative forms of “that.” [17]

    English spelling was also influenced by Norman in this period, with the /θ/ and /ð/ sounds being spelled th rather than with the Old English letters þ (thorn) and ð (eth) , which did not exist in Norman. These letters remain in the modern Icelandic and Faroese alphabets , having been borrowed from Old English via Old West Norse .

    Early Modern English[ edit ]

    Main article: Early Modern English

    English underwent extensive sound changes during the 15th century, while its spelling conventions remained largely constant. Modern English is often dated from the Great Vowel Shift , which took place mainly during the 15th century. The language was further transformed by the spread of a standardized London-based dialect in government and administration and by the standardizing effect of printing, which also tended to regularize capitalization . As a result, the language acquired self-conscious terms such as “accent” and “dialect”. [18] As most early presses come from continental Europe, a few native English letters such as þ and ð die out; for some time þe is written as ye. By the time of William Shakespeare (mid 16th – early 17th century), [19] the language had become clearly recognizable as Modern English. In 1604, the first English dictionary was published, the Table Alphabeticall .

    Increased literacy and travel facilitated the adoption of many foreign words, especially borrowings from Latin and Greek from the time of the Renaissance . In the 17th century, Latin words were often used with their original inflections, but these eventually disappeared. As there are many words from different languages and English spelling is variable, the risk of mispronunciation is high, but remnants of the older forms remain in a few regional dialects, most notably in the West Country . During the period, loan words were borrowed from Italian, German, and Yiddish. British acceptance of and resistance to Americanisms began during this period. [20]

    Modern English[ edit ]

    Title page from the second edition of the Dictionary

    Main article: Modern English

    The first authoritative and full-featured English dictionary, the Dictionary of the English Language , was published by Samuel Johnson in 1755. To a high degree, the dictionary standardized both English spelling and word usage. Meanwhile, grammar texts by Lowth , Murray , Priestly , and others attempted to prescribe standard usage even further.

    Early Modern English and Late Modern English, also called Present-Day English (PDE), differ essentially in vocabulary. Late Modern English has many more words, arising from the Industrial Revolution and technologies that created a need for new words, as well as international development of the language. The British Empire at its height covered one quarter of the Earth’s land surface, and the English language adopted foreign words from many countries. British English and North American English, the two major varieties of the language, are together spoken by 400 million people. The total number of English speakers worldwide may exceed one billion. [21] The English language will almost certainly continue to evolve over time. With the development of computer and online environments (such as chat rooms, social media expressions, and apps), and the adoption of English as a worldwide lingua franca across cultures, customs, and traditions, it should not be surprising to see further shortening of words, phrases, and/or sentences.

    Phonological changes[ edit ]

    Main article: Phonological history of English
    [] This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support , you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA .

    Introduction[ edit ]

    Over the last 1,200 years or so, English has undergone extensive changes in its vowel system but many fewer changes to its consonants.

    In the Old English period, a number of umlaut processes affected vowels in complex ways, and unstressed vowels were gradually eroded, eventually leading to a loss of grammatical case and grammatical gender in the Early Middle English period. The most important umlaut process was * i-mutation (c. 500 CE), which led to pervasive alternations of all sorts, many of which survive in the modern language: e.g. in noun paradigms (foot vs. feet, mouse vs. mice, brother vs. brethren); in verb paradigms (sold vs. sell); nominal derivatives from adjectives (“strong” vs. “strength”, broad vs. breadth, foul vs. filth) and from other nouns (fox vs. “vixen”); verbal derivatives (“food” vs. “to feed”); and comparative adjectives (“old” vs. “elder”). Consonants were more stable, although velar consonants were significantly modified by palatalization , which produced alternations such as speak vs. speech, drink vs. drench, wake vs. watch, bake vs. batch.

    The Middle English period saw further vowel changes. Most significant was the Great Vowel Shift (c. 1500 CE), which transformed the pronunciation of all long vowels. This occurred after the spelling system was fixed, and accounts for the drastic differences in pronunciation between “short” mat, met, bit, cot vs. “long” mate, mete/meet, bite, coat. Other changes that left echoes in the modern language were homorganic lengthening before ld, mb, nd, which accounts for the long vowels in child, mind, climb, etc.; pre-cluster shortening , which resulted in the vowel alternations in child vs. children, keep vs. kept, meet vs. met; and trisyllabic laxing , which is responsible for alternations such as grateful vs. gratitude, divine vs. divinity, sole vs. solitary.

    Among the more significant recent changes to the language have been the development of rhotic and non-rhotic accents (i.e. “r-dropping”); the trap-bath split in many dialects of British English ; and flapping of t and d between vowels in American English and Australian English .

    Vowel changes[ edit ]

    The following table shows the principal developments in the stressed vowels, from Old English through Modern English (C indicates any consonant):

    Old English
    (c. 900 AD)
    Middle English
    (c. 1400 AD)
    Early Modern English
    (c. 1600 AD)
    Modern EnglishModern spellingExamples
    əʊ (UK)
    oa, oCeoak, boat, whole, stone
    æː, æːɑɛːeaheal, beat, cheap
    eː, eːoee, -efeed, deep, me, be
    iː, yːəi or ɛiiCeride, time, mice
    oo, -omoon, food, do
    əu or ɔuoumouse, out, loud
    ɑ, æ, æɑaææaman, sat, wax
    ɛːaCename, bake, raven
    e, eoeɛɛehelp, tell, seven
    ɛːea, eCespeak, meat, mete
    i, yɪɪɪiwritten, sit, kiss
    ɑ (US)
    ogod, top, beyond
    əʊ (UK)
    oa, oCefoal, nose, over
    uʊɤʌu, obuck, up, love, wonder
    ʊʊfull, bull

    The following chart shows the primary developments of English vowels in the last 600 years, in more detail, since Late Middle English of Chaucer ‘s time. The Great Vowel Shift can be seen in the dramatic developments from c. 1400 to 1600.

    Great Vowel Shift.svg

    Neither of the above tables covers the history of Middle English diphthongs , the changes before /r/, or various special cases and exceptions. For details, see phonological history of English as well as the articles on Old English phonology and Middle English phonology .

    Examples[ edit ]

    The vowel changes over time can be seen in the following example words, showing the changes in their form over the last 2,000 years:

    Proto-Germanic, c. 0 ADainaztwaiθriːzfeðwoːrfimfsehsseβunmoːðeːrhertoːːhauzijanã
    West Germanic, c. 400 ADaintwaiθrijufewwurfimfsehsseβunmoːdarhertahaurijan
    Late Old English, c. 900 ADaːntwaːθreofeoworfiːfsikssĕŏvonmoːdorhĕŏrteheːran, hyːran
    (Late Old English spelling)(ān)(twā)(þrēo)(fēowor)(fīf)(six)(seofon)(mōdor)(heorte)(hēran, hȳran)
    Late Middle English, c. 1350 ADɔːntwoːθreːfowərfiːvəsikssevənmoːðərhertəhɛːrə(n)
    (Late Middle English spelling)(oon)(two)(three)(fower)(five)(six)(seven)(mother)(herte)(heere(n))
    Early Modern English, c. 1600 ADoːn >! wʊntwuː > tuːθriːfoːrfəivsikssevənmʊðərhertheːr
    Modern English, c. 2000 ADwʌntuːθriːfɔː(r)faivsɪkssevənmʌðə(r)hɑrt/hɑːthiːr/hiə

    Grammatical changes[ edit ]

    The English language once had an extensive declension system similar to Latin , modern German and Icelandic . Old English distinguished among the nominative , accusative , dative , and genitive cases, and for strongly declined adjectives and some pronouns also a separate instrumental case (which otherwise and later completely coincided with the dative). In addition, the dual number was distinguished from the singular and plural. [22]
    Declension was greatly simplified during the Middle English period, when the accusative and dative cases of the pronouns merged into a single oblique case that also replaced the genitive case after prepositions. Nouns in Modern English no longer decline for case, except for the genitive .

    Evolution of English pronouns[ edit ]

    Pronouns such as whom and him (contrasted with who and he), are a conflation of the old accusative and dative cases, as well as of the genitive case after prepositions (while her also includes the genitive case). This conflated form is called the oblique case or the object (objective) case, because it is used for objects of verbs (direct, indirect, or oblique) as well as for objects of prepositions. (See object pronoun .) The information formerly conveyed by distinct case forms is now mostly provided by prepositions and word order. In Old English as well as modern German and Icelandic as further examples, these cases had distinct forms.

    Although some grammarians continue to use the traditional terms “accusative” and “dative”, these are functions rather than morphological cases in Modern English. That is, the form whom may play accusative or dative roles (as well as instrumental or prepositional roles), but it is a single morphological form, contrasting with nominative who and genitive whose. Many grammarians use the labels “subjective”, “objective”, and “possessive” for nominative, oblique, and genitive pronouns.

    Modern English nouns exhibit only one inflection of the reference form: the possessive case , which some linguists argue is not a case at all, but a clitic (see the entry for genitive case for more information).

    Interrogative pronouns[ edit ]

    Case Old English Middle English Modern English
    Accusativehwone, hwænewhomwhom, who1
    Dativehwām, hwǣm
    Accusativehwætwhat, whom
    Dativehwām, hwǣm
    Instrumentalhwȳ, hwonwhywhy

    1 – In some dialects who is used where Formal English only allows whom, though variation among dialects must be taken into account.

    2 – Usually replaced by of what (postpositioned).

    First person personal pronouns[ edit ]

    Case Old English Middle English Modern English
    Singular NominativeI, ich, ikI
    Accusativemē, meċmeme
    Genitivemīnmin, mimy, mine
    Plural Nominativewewe
    Accusativeūs, ūsiċusus
    Genitiveūser, ūreure, ourour, ours

    (Old English also had a separate dual , wit (“we two”) etcetera; however, no later forms derive from it.)

    Second person personal pronouns[ edit ]

    Old and Middle English singular to the Modern English archaic informal
    Case Old English Middle English Modern English
    Singular Nominativeþūþu, thouthou (you)
    Accusativeþē, þeċþé, theethee (you)
    Genitiveþīnþi, þīn, þīne, thy; thin, thinethy, thine (your, yours)
    Plural Nominativeġēye, ȝe, youyou
    Accusativeēow, ēowiċyou, ya
    Genitiveēoweryouryour, yours

    Note that the ye/you distinction still existed, at least optionally, in Early Modern English: “Ye shall know the truth and the truth shall make you free” from the King James Bible .

    Here the letter þ (interchangeable with ð in manuscripts) corresponds to th. For ȝ, see Yogh .

    Formal and informal forms of the second person singular and plural
    Old English Middle English Modern English
    Accusativeþē, þeċēow, ēowiċtheeyou
    Genitiveþīnēoweryour, yoursthy, thineyour, yoursyour, yours

    (Old English also had a separate dual , ȝit (“ye two”) etcetera; however, no later forms derive from it.)

    Third person personal pronouns[ edit ]

    Case Old English Middle English Modern English
    Masculine Singular Nominativehehe
    Feminine Singular Nominativehēoheo, sche, ho, he, ȝhoshe
    Accusativehīehire, hure, her, heoreher
    Genitivehir, hire, heore, her, hereher, hers
    Neuter Singular Nominativehithit, itit
    Accusativehit, it, him
    Genitivehishis, itsits
    Plural Nominativehīehe, hi, ho, hie, þai, þeithey
    Accusativehem, ham, heom, þaim, þem, þamthem
    Genitivehirahere, heore, hore, þair, þartheir, theirs

    (The origin of the modern forms is generally thought to have been a borrowing from Old Norse forms þæir, þæim, þæira. The two different roots co-existed for some time, although currently the only common remnant is the shortened form ’em. Cf. also the demonstrative pronouns.)

    Examples[ edit ]

    Beowulf[ edit ]

    Beowulf is an Old English epic poem in alliterative verse . It is dated from the 8th to the early 11th centuries. These are the first 11 lines:

    Hwæt! Wē Gār-Denain geārdagum,
    þēodcyningaþrym gefrūnon,
    ðā æþelingasellen fremedon.
    Oft Scyld Scēfingsceaþena þrēatum,
    monegum mǣgþum,meodosetla oftēah,
    egsode eorlas.Syððan ǣrest wearð
    fēasceaft funden,þæs frōfre gebād,
    wēox under wolcnum,weorðmyndum þāh,
    oðþæt him ǣghwylcþāra ymbsittendra
    ofer hronrādehȳran scolde,
    gomban gyldan.Þæt wæs gōd cyning!

    Which, as translated by Francis Barton Gummere , reads:

    Lo, praise of the prowess of people-kings
    of spear-armed Danes, in days long sped,
    we have heard, and what honor the athelings won!
    Oft Scyld the Scefing from squadroned foes,
    from many a tribe, the mead-bench tore,
    awing the earls. Since erst he lay
    friendless, a foundling, fate repaid him:
    for he waxed under welkin, in wealth he throve,
    till before him the folk, both far and near,
    who house by the whale-path, heard his mandate,
    gave him gifts: a good king he!

    Voyages of Ohthere and Wulfstan[ edit ]

    This is the beginning of The Voyages of Ohthere and Wulfstan, a prose text in Old English dated to the late 9th century. The full text can be found at Wikisource .

    Ōhthere sǣde his hlāforde, Ælfrēde cyninge, ðæt hē ealra Norðmonna norþmest būde. Hē cwæð þæt hē būde on þǣm lande norþweardum wiþ þā Westsǣ. Hē sǣde þēah þæt þæt land sīe swīþe lang norþ þonan; ac hit is eal wēste, būton on fēawum stōwum styccemǣlum wīciað Finnas, on huntoðe on wintra, ond on sumera on fiscaþe be þǣre sǣ. Hē sǣde þæt hē æt sumum cirre wolde fandian hū longe þæt land norþryhte lǣge, oþþe hwæðer ǣnig mon be norðan þǣm wēstenne būde. Þā fōr hē norþryhte be þǣm lande: lēt him ealne weg þæt wēste land on ðæt stēorbord, ond þā wīdsǣ on ðæt bæcbord þrīe dagas. Þā wæs hē swā feor norþ swā þā hwælhuntan firrest faraþ. Þā fōr hē þā giet norþryhte swā feor swā hē meahte on þǣm ōþrum þrīm dagum gesiglau. Þā bēag þæt land, þǣr ēastryhte, oþþe sēo sǣ in on ðæt lond, hē nysse hwæðer, būton hē wisse ðæt hē ðǣr bād westanwindes ond hwōn norþan, ond siglde ðā ēast be lande swā swā hē meahte on fēower dagum gesiglan. Þā sceolde hē ðǣr bīdan ryhtnorþanwindes, for ðǣm þæt land bēag þǣr sūþryhte, oþþe sēo sǣ in on ðæt land, hē nysse hwæþer. Þā siglde hē þonan sūðryhte be lande swā swā hē meahte on fīf dagum gesiglan. Ðā læg þǣr ān micel ēa ūp on þæt land. Ðā cirdon hīe ūp in on ðā ēa for þǣm hīe ne dorston forþ bī þǣre ēa siglan for unfriþe; for þǣm ðæt land wæs eall gebūn on ōþre healfe þǣre ēas. Ne mētte hē ǣr nān gebūn land, siþþan hē from his āgnum hām fōr; ac him wæs ealne weg wēste land on þæt stēorbord, būtan fiscerum ond fugelerum ond huntum, ond þæt wǣron eall Finnas; ond him wæs āwīdsǣ on þæt bæcbord. Þā Boermas heafdon sīþe wel gebūd hira land: ac hīe ne dorston þǣr on cuman. Ac þāra Terfinna land wæs eal wēste, būton ðǣr huntan gewīcodon, oþþe fisceras, oþþe fugeleras.

    A translation:

    Ohthere said to his lord, King Alfred , that he of all Norsemen lived north-most. He quoth that he lived in the land northward along the North Sea. He said though that the land was very long from there, but it is all wasteland, except that in a few places here and there Finns [i.e. Sami ] encamp, hunting in winter and in summer fishing by the sea. He said that at some time he wanted to find out how long the land lay northward or whether any man lived north of the wasteland. Then he traveled north by the land. All the way he kept the waste land on his starboard and the wide sea on his port three days. Then he was as far north as whale hunters furthest travel. Then he traveled still north as far as he might sail in another three days. Then the land bowed east (or the sea into the land — he did not know which). But he knew that he waited there for west winds (and somewhat north), and sailed east by the land so as he might sail in four days. Then he had to wait for due-north winds, because the land bowed south (or the sea into the land — he did not know which). Then he sailed from there south by the land so as he might sail in five days. Then a large river lay there up into the land. Then they turned up into the river, because they dared not sail forth past the river for hostility, because the land was all settled on the other side of the river. He had not encountered earlier any settled land since he travelled from his own home, but all the way waste land was on his starboard (except fishers, fowlers and hunters, who were all Finns). And the wide sea was always on his port. The Bjarmians have cultivated their land very well, but they did not dare go in there. But the Terfinn’s land was all waste except where hunters encamped, or fishers or fowlers. [23]

    Ayenbite of Inwyt[ edit ]

    From Ayenbite of Inwyt (“the prick of conscience”), a translation of a French confessional prose work into the Kentish dialect of Middle English, completed in 1340: [24]

    Nou ich wille þet ye ywite hou hit is ywent
    þet þis boc is ywrite mid Engliss of Kent.
    Þis boc is ymad vor lewede men
    Vor vader and vor moder and vor oþer ken
    ham vor to berȝe vram alle manyere zen
    þet ine hare inwytte ne bleve no voul wen.
    Huo ase god’ in his name yzed,
    Þet þis boc made god him yeve þet bread,
    Of angles of hevene, and þerto his red,
    And ondervonge his zaule huanne þet he is dyad. Amen.

    Canterbury Tales[ edit ]

    The beginning of The Canterbury Tales , a collection of stories in poetry and prose written in the London dialect of Middle English by Geoffrey Chaucer at the end of the 14th century: [25]

    Whan that Aprill with his shoures soote
    The droghte of March hath perced to the roote,
    And bathed every veyne in swich licour
    Of which vertu engendred is the flour;
    Whan Zephirus eek with his sweete breeth
    Inspired hath in every holt and heeth
    The tendre croppes, and the yonge sonne
    Hath in the Ram his half cours yronne,
    And smale foweles maken melodye,
    That slepen al the nyght with open
    (So priketh hem nature in hir corages),
    Thanne longen folk to goon on pilgrimages,
    And palmeres for to seken straunge strondes,
    To ferne halwes, kowthe in sondry londes;
    And specially from every shires ende
    Of Engelond to Caunterbury they wende,
    The hooly blisful martir for to seke,
    That hem hath holpen whan that they were seeke.

    Paradise Lost[ edit ]

    The beginning of Paradise Lost , an epic poem in unrhymed iambic pentameter written in Early Modern English by John Milton and first published in 1667:

    Of Mans First Disobedience, and the Fruit
    Of that Forbidden Tree, whose mortal tast
    Brought Death into the World, and all our woe,
    With loss of Eden, till one greater Man
    Restore us, and regain the blissful Seat,
    Sing Heav’nly Muse, that on the secret top
    Of Oreb, or of Sinai, didst inspire
    That Shepherd, who first taught the chosen Seed,
    In the Beginning how the Heav’ns and Earth
    Rose out of Chaos: Or if Sion Hill
    Delight thee more, and Siloa’s Brook that flow’d
    Fast by the Oracle of God; I thence
    Invoke thy aid to my adventrous Song,
    That with no middle flight intends to soar
    Above th’ Aonian Mount, while it pursues
    Things unattempted yet in Prose or Rhime.

    Oliver Twist[ edit ]

    A selection from the novel Oliver Twist , written by Charles Dickens in Modern English and published in 1838:

    The evening arrived: the boys took their places; the master in his cook’s uniform stationed himself at the copper; his pauper assistants ranged themselves behind him; the gruel was served out, and a long grace was said over the short commons. The gruel disappeared, the boys whispered each other and winked at Oliver, while his next neighbours nudged him. Child as he was, he was desperate with hunger and reckless with misery. He rose from the table, and advancing, basin and spoon in hand, to the master, said, somewhat alarmed at his own temerity—

    “Please, sir, I want some more.”

    The master was a fat, healthy man, but he turned very pale. He gazed in stupefied astonishment on the small rebel for some seconds, and then clung for support to the copper. The assistants were paralysed with wonder, and the boys with fear.

    “What!” said the master at length, in a faint voice.

    “Please, sir,” replied Oliver, “I want some more.”

    The master aimed a blow at Oliver’s head with the ladle, pinioned him in his arms, and shrieked aloud for the beadle.

    See also[ edit ]

    • Book: English language
    • Phonological history of the English language
    • American and British English differences
    • English phonology
    • English studies
    • Inkhorn debate
    • Languages in the United Kingdom
    • Middle English creole hypothesis
    • Middle English declension
    • History of the Scots language
    • Changes to Old English vocabulary


    • List of dialects of the English language
    • List of Germanic and Latinate equivalents
    • Lists of English words of international origin

    Notes[ edit ]

    1. ^ Dark, Ken, 2000. Britain and the End of the Roman Empire. Brimscombe, Gloucestershire, Tempus, pp. 43-47.
    2. ^ Oppenheimer, Stephen, 2006. The Origins of the British London, Robinson, pp. 364-374.
    3. ^ Baugh, Albert and Cable, Thomas. 2002. The History of the English Language. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall. pp. 79-81.
    4. ^ a b Shore, Thomas William (1906), Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race – A Study of the Settlement of England and the Tribal Origin of the Old English People (1st ed.), London, pp. 3, 393 
    5. ^ Crystal, David. 2004. The Stories of English. London: Penguin. pp. 24-26.
    6. ^ Baugh, Albert and Cable, Thomas. 2002. The History of the English Language. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall. pp. 91-92.
    7. ^ “Geordie dialect” . 2007-03-12. Retrieved 2010-06-19. 
    8. ^ “4.1 The change from Old English to Middle English” . Retrieved 2010-06-19. 
    9. ^ The Oxford history of English lexicography, Volume 1 By Anthony Paul Cowie
    10. ^ Fennell, B (2001). A History of English: A Sociolinguistic Approach. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing. 
    11. ^ a b c Hogg, Richard M. (ed.). (1992). The Cambridge History of the English Language (Vol. 1): the Beginnings to 1066. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 320ff.
    12. ^ Baugh, Albert and Cable, Thomas. 2002. The History of the English Language. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall. pp. 92-105.
    13. ^ Baugh, Albert and Cable, Thomas. 2002. The History of the English Language. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall. pp. 158-178.
    14. ^ Filppula, Markku, Juhani Klemola and Heli Pitkänen (eds.). 2002. The Celtic Roots of English. Joensuu: University of Joensuu, Faculty of Humanities.
    15. ^ David L. White On the Areal Pattern of ‘Brittonicity’ in English and Its Implications in Hildegard L. C. Tristram (ed.). 2006. The Celtic Englishes IV – The Interface Between English and the Celtic Languages. Potsdam: University of Potsdam
    16. ^ La langue française et la mondialisation, Yves Montenay, Les Belles lettres, Paris, 2005
    17. ^ Millward, C. M. (1989). A Biography of the English Language. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. p. 147. 
    18. ^ Crystal, David. 2004. The Stories of English. London: Penguin. pp. 341-343.
    19. ^ See Fausto Cercignani , Shakespeare’s Works and Elizabethan Pronunciation, Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1981.
    20. ^ Algeo, John. 2010. The Origins and Development of the English Language. Boston, MA: Wadsworth. pp. 140-141.
    21. ^ Algeo, John. 2010. The Origins and Development of the English Language. Boston, MA: Wadsworth. pp. 182-187.
    22. ^ Peter S. Baker (2003). “Pronouns” . The Electronic Introduction to Old English. Oxford: Blackwell . Archived from the original on September 11, 2015. 
    23. ^ Original translation for this article: In this close translation readers should be able to see the correlation with the original.
    24. ^ Translation:
      Now I want that you understand how it has come [i.e., happened]
      that this book is written with [the] English of Kent.
      This book is made for unlearned men
      for father, and for mother, and for other kin
      them for to protect [i.e., in order to protect them] from all manner of sin
      [so] that in their conscience [there] not remain no foul wen [i.e., blemish].
      “Who [is] like God?” [the author’s name is “Michael”, which in Hebrew means “Who is like God?”] in His name said
      that this book made God give him that bread
      of angels of heaven and in addition His council
      and receive his soul when he has died. Amen.
    25. ^ Spelling based on The Riverside Chaucer, third edition, Larry D. Benson, gen. ed., Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1987.

    References[ edit ]

    • Cercignani, Fausto , Shakespeare’s Works and Elizabethan Pronunciation, Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1981.
    • Mallory, J. P (2005). In Search of the Indo-Europeans. Thames & Hudson . ISBN   0-500-27616-1
    • Ringe, Donald R. and Taylor, Ann (2014). The Development of Old English – A Linguistic History of English, vol. II, 632p. ISBN   978-0199207848 . Oxford.
    • Simek, Rudolf (2007) translated by Angela Hall. Dictionary of Northern Mythology. D.S. Brewer . ISBN   0-85991-513-1

    External links[ edit ]

    • The History of English Podcast
    • Penn Corpora of Historical English
    • Scandinavian loans in Old and Middle English, and their legacy in the dialects of England and modern standard English
    • v
    • t
    • e
    History of English
    • Proto-Indo-European
    • Proto-Germanic
    • Proto-West-Germanic
    • Anglo-Frisian languages
    • Old English
    • Anglo-Norman language
    • Middle English
    • Early Modern English
    • Modern English
    Phonological history
    • Old English
    • Great Vowel Shift
    • low unrounded vowels
    • low back vowels
    • high back vowels
    • high front vowels
    • diphthongs
    • changes before historic /l/
    • changes before historic /r/
    • trisyllabic laxing
    • rhoticity
    • flapping
    • t-glottalization
    • l-vocalization
    • consonant clusters
    • h-dropping
    • wh
    • th
    • th-fronting
    • ð (eth)
    • þ (thorn)
    • th-stopping
    • v
    • t
    • e
    Philology of Germanic languages
    Language subgroups
    • North
    • East
    • West
      • Elbe
      • Weser-Rhine
      • North Sea
    • Northwest
    • Gotho-Nordic
    • South
    • Proto-Germanic
    • Proto-Germanic grammar
    • Germanic parent language
    Historical languages
    • Proto-Norse
    • Old Norse
    • Old Swedish
    • Old Gutnish
    • Norn
    • Greenlandic Norse
    • Old Norwegian
    • Middle Norwegian
    • Gothic
    • Crimean Gothic
    • Vandalic
    • Burgundian
    • Old Saxon
    • Middle Low German
    • Old High German
    • Middle High German
    • Frankish
    • Old Dutch
    • Middle Dutch
    • Old Frisian
    • Middle Frisian
    • Old English
    • Middle English
    • Early Scots
    • Middle Scots
    • Lombardic
    Modern languages
    • Afrikaans
    • Alemannic
    • Cimbrian
    • Danish
    • Dutch
    • English
    • Faroese
    • German
    • Icelandic
    • Limburgish
    • Low German
    • Mennonite Low German
    • Luxembourgish
    • North Frisian
    • Norwegian
    • Saterland Frisian
    • Scots
    • Swedish
    • West Frisian
    • Yiddish
    Diachronic features
    • Grimm’s law
    • Verner’s law
    • Holtzmann’s law
    • Sievers’s law
    • Kluge’s law
    • Germanic substrate hypothesis
    • West Germanic gemination
    • High German consonant shift
    • Germanic a-mutation
    • Germanic umlaut
    • Germanic spirant law
    • Ingvaeonic nasal spirant law
    • Great Vowel Shift
    Synchronic features
    • Germanic verb
    • Germanic strong verb
    • Germanic weak verb
    • Preterite-present verb
    • Grammatischer Wechsel
    • Indo-European ablaut
    Language histories
    • English ( phonology )
    • Scots ( phonology )
    • German
    • Dutch
    • Danish
    • Icelandic
    • Swedish
    • v
    • t
    • e
    Histories of the world’s languages
    • Afrikaans
    • Albanian
    • Arabic
    • Aramaic
    • Basque
    • Belarusian
    • Bosnian
    • Bulgarian
    • Catalan
    • Cherokee
    • Chinese
      • Gan
      • Mandarin
    • Czech
    • Danish
    • Dutch
    • English
    • Esperanto
    • Estonian
    • Finnish
    • Filipino
    • French ( Quebec )
    • German
    • Greek
    • Hebrew
    • Hungarian
    • Hindustani
    • Icelandic
    • Interlingua
    • Irish
    • Italian
    • Japanese
    • Kannada
    • Korean
    • Latin
    • Latvian
    • Lithuanian
    • Macedonian
    • Malay
    • Malayalam
    • Moldovan
    • Nepali
    • Norwegian
    • Persian
    • Polish
    • Portuguese
    • Romanian
    • Russian ( in Ukraine )
    • Scots
    • Slovak
    • Slovene
    • Spanish
    • Swedish
    • Tamil
    • Telugu
    • Turkish
    • Ukrainian
    • Vietnamese
    • Welsh
    • Yiddish
    • v
    • t
    • e
    Description of the English language
    • Grammar
    • Phonology
    • Stress and reduced vowels
    • Orthography
    • Alphabet
    • Braille
    • Dialects
    • Language history
    • Phonological history

    Retrieved from ” ”
    Categories :

    • History of the English language
    • English phonology
    • Language histories
    Hidden categories:

    • All articles with unsourced statements
    • Articles with unsourced statements from February 2018

    Navigation menu

    Personal tools

    • Not logged in
    • Talk
    • Contributions
    • Create account
    • Log in


    • Article
    • Talk



      • Read
      • Edit
      • View history



        • Main page
        • Contents
        • Featured content
        • Current events
        • Random article
        • Donate to Wikipedia
        • Wikipedia store


        • Help
        • About Wikipedia
        • Community portal
        • Recent changes
        • Contact page


        • What links here
        • Related changes
        • Upload file
        • Special pages
        • Permanent link
        • Page information
        • Wikidata item
        • Cite this page


        • Create a book
        • Download as PDF
        • Printable version

        In other projects

        • Wikimedia Commons


        • العربية
        • Bân-lâm-gú
        • Català
        • Deutsch
        • Español
        • Français
        • Galego
        • 한국어
        • Bahasa Indonesia
        • La .lojban.
        • Magyar
        • 日本語
        • ਪੰਜਾਬੀ
        • Português
        • Русский
        • Shqip
        • Slovenčina
        • தமிழ்
        • Українська
        • 中文
        Edit links

        • This page was last edited on 12 August 2018, at 19:31 (UTC).
        • Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License ;
          additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy . Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. , a non-profit organization.
        • Privacy policy
        • About Wikipedia
        • Disclaimers
        • Contact Wikipedia
        • Developers
        • Cookie statement
        • Mobile view
        • Wikimedia Foundation
        • Powered by MediaWiki

        stoner questions to make you think